Volume-5 Issue-3

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Volume-5 Issue-3, March 2018, ISSN: 2319–6386 (Online)
Published By: Blue Eyes Intelligence Engineering & Sciences Publication Pvt. Ltd.

Page No.



Md. Akhtar Hossain, Shahrin Islam

Paper Title:

Mechanical Properties of Chemically Treated Geotextile

Abstract: In recent years, geotextile has been used as one of the modern technology in landfill for several functions such as geotextile filter, geotextile cushion, geotextile separator, geotextile gas vent etc. In landfills, geotextiles are subjected to a complex range of acidic and alkaline solutions generating from waste and leachate. To survive these chemical attacks in subsoil environment, geotextile is required to be enough strong and resistant. Due to the waste and leachate characteristics, it is very essential to determine the chemical resistance of geotextile used in landfills. The aim of this paper is to determine the effects of chemical aging on the tensile strength and strain of synthetic geotextile. Experimental evaluation on the properties of nonwoven polypropylene geotextile is conducted under the influence of acidic (pH 0.5) and alkaline (pH 14) condition. This particular pH range signifies highly intense chemical aging. The geotextiles were immersed in the acidic and alkaline solution for 15, 30, 60, 90 and 120 days. Tensile strength and strain have been evaluated for both chemically treated samples which will provide a better understanding of the durability of geotextile to be used in landfills.

Keywords: Nonwoven Polypropylene Geotextile, Tensile Strength, Strain, Chemical Aging.


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Tejiona Tangomo Frank Roland, Ochieng Abuodha Silvester, Shitote Stanley Muse, Poh’Sie Guillaume Herve

Paper Title:

Properties of Lightweight Concrete made with Volcanic Scoria from Kenya, as Coarse Aggregates

Abstract: Lightweight concrete (LWC) is a specific type of concrete developed when the need to reduce dead load becomes relevant in structures, such as high-rise buildings and bridge decks. This type of concrete can offer a good strength to weight ratio, good insulating properties and costs benefits due to reduced sections of bearing elements in a structure (columns, beams, foundations). It is commonly made using artificial lightweight aggregates like expanded shales and clays; however, the manufacturing process of those aggregates is linked to a great amount of energy consumption, natural resources depletion, and large amount of emission of CO2 gas in the environment, and finally high costs. This experimental study investigated the use of volcanic scoria aggregates from Lukenya in Kenya to produce structural lightweight aggregates concrete (SLWAC). Scoria stones were collected, crushed into particle sizes 4.75-19 mm, conforming to the grading requirements of ASTM C330, and used to produce lightweight concrete designed using the three different methods prescribed by the standard ACI 211.2-98 for proportioning structural lightweight concrete. The design strength was 30 MPa and the aim was not only to investigate the feasibility of producing structural lightweight concrete with locally available scoria aggregates, but also to find out the best mix design approach out of the three prescribed by the standard, namely the weight method, the absolute volume method and the damp loose method. Physical and mechanical tests were carried out on the scoria aggregates to classify them as suitable for structural lightweight concrete production. Similar tests were also carried out on the lightweight concrete. The results showed that the absolute volume method of mix design was the one giving the best results as regards to the dry density, the slump, and the strengths (compressive, splitting tensile and flexural strength); This lead to the conclusion that volcanic scoria can be used as an alternative to artificial lightweight aggregates for structural lightweight concrete production, and proved the efficiency of the absolute volume method as the best mix design approach.

Keywords: Absolute Volume Method, Artificial Lightweight Aggregates, Lightweight Concrete, Structural Lightweight Concrete, Volcanic Scoria Aggregates


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  2. ACI 211.2-98, “Standard practice for selecting proportions for Structural lightweight concrete”
  3. M. Neville, Properties of Concrete, John Wiley and Sons Inc., New York, 1996.
  4. ASTM C 330-89, “Standard Specification for Lightweight Aggregates for Structural Concrete”, Annual Book of ASTM Standards, 4.02, 193195.
  5. ASTM C 33-97, “Standard Specification for Concrete Aggregates”, Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol. 4.02, pp.10-16.
  6. Chen, and J. Liu, "Experimental Application of Mineral admixtures in Lightweight Concrete with High Strength and Workability" Construction and Building Materials, 2008.
  7. Z. Min, and E. Gjorv, "Characteristics of lightweight aggregate for high strength concrete." ACI Materials Journal, V.88, No.2 , 1990. P150-158.
  8. F. Meyer, and L.F. Khan, “Lightweight Concrete Reduces Weight and Increases Span Length of Pretensioned Bridge Girders”, PCI Journal, 2002.
  9. M. Hossain, "Properties of Volcanic Pumice Based Cement and Lightweight Concrete", Cement and Concrete Research, 34, 2004, 283291.
  10. Moufti, M. R., Sabtan, A. A., & Shehata, W. M. (2000). Assessment of the industrial utilization of scoria materials in central Harrat Rahat , Saudi Arabia, 57, 155–162.
  11. Mindess, F. Young, Darwin, Concrete, 2nd edition, New Jersey, Prentice-Hall, 1996.