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Volume-1 Issue-10: Published on September 15, 2013
Volume-1 Issue-10: Published on September 15, 2013
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S. No

Volume-1 Issue-10, September 2013, ISSN: 2319–6386 (Online)
Published By: Blue Eyes Intelligence Engineering & Sciences Publication Pvt. Ltd. 

Page No.



M. M. Manyuchi, A. Phiri, P. Muredzi, N. Chirinda

Paper Title:

Bio-Conversion of Food Wastes into Vermicompost and Vermiwash

Abstract: Vermicomposting technology is the bio-conversion of organic waste into bio-fertilizers using earthworms. Vermicomposting is widely being used for solid waste management. Various food wastes were vermicomposted over 30 days using Eisenia fetida earthworms. Vermicompost and vermiwash were obtained as vermi-products. The vermicompost nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium composition was 2.1%, 0.29% and 0.19% respectively. Whereas, the vermiwash only contained 0.58% nitrogen and 0.47% potassium. Vermicomposting technology is necessary as a food wastes management strategy.

Eisenia fetida, food wastes, vermicomposting, vermiwash, vermi-products.


1.        M. M. Manyuchi., T. Chitambwe., A. Phiri., P, Muredzi and Q, Kanhukamwe, “Effect of vermicompost, vermiwash and application time on soil physicochemical properties”, International Journal of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, 4 (4), 216-220, 2013.
2.        A. A. Ansari and K. Sukhraj, “Effect of vermiwash and vermicompost on soil parameters and productivity of okra (abelmoschus esculentus) in Guyana”, Pakistan J. Agric Resources, Vol 23, pp. 137-142, 2010.

3.        M. M. Manyuchi., L. Kadzungura., A. Phiri., P, Muredzi and Q, Kanhukamwe, “Effect of vermicompost, vermiwash and application time on soil micronutrients”, International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Technology, 2 (5), 215-218, 2013.

4.        V. Palanichamy, B. Mitra, N. Reddy, M. Katiyar, R. B. Rajkumari, C. Ramalingam and Arangantham, “Utilizing Food Waste by Vermicomposting, Extracting Vermiwash, Castings and Increasing Relative Growth of Plants”, International Journal of Chemical and Analytical Science 2 (11), pp. 1241-1246, 2011.

5.        M. M. Manyuchi., T. Chitambwe., A. Phiri., P, Muredzi and Q, Kanhukamwe, “Effect of vermicompost, vermiwash and application time on Zea Mays growth”, International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Technology, 2 (7), 638-641, 2013.

6.        G. Nath, K. Singh and D. K. Singh, “Chemical Analysis of Vermicomposts/Vermiwash of Different Combinations of Animal, Agro and Kitchen Wastes”, Australian Journal of Basic Applied Sciences, 3 (4), pp. 3671-3676, 2009.

7.        M. M. Manyuchi., T. Chitambwe., P, Muredzi and Kanhukamwe, Q, “Continuous flow-through vermireactor for medium scale vermicomposting”, Asian Journal of Engineering and Technology, 1 (1), 44-48, 2013.

8.        S. Quaik, A. Embrandiri, P. F. Rupani, R. P. Singh and M. H. Ibrahim, “Effect of vermiwash and vermicompost leachate in hydroponics culture of Indian borage (Plectranthus ambionicus) plantlets”, 11th International Annual Symposium on Sustainability Science and Management, pp. 210-214, 2012.

9.        M. M. Manyuchi, A. Phiri, P. Muredzi and S. Boka, “Comparison of vermicompost and vermiwash bio-fertilizers from vermicomposting waste corn pulp”, World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, 78, 365-368, 2013.

10.     K. Tharmaraj, P. Ganesh, K. Kolanjinathan, R. Suresh Kumar and A. Anandan, “Influence of vermicompost and vermiwash on physicochemical properties of rice cultivated soil”, Current Botany, Vol 2, pp. 18-21, 2011.

11.     M. M. Manyuchi., A. Phiri., N. Chirinda., J. Govha and T. Sengudzwa, “Vermicomposting of waste corn pulp blended with cow dung using Eisenia Fetida”, World Academy of Sciences in Engineering and Technology, 68, 1306-1309, 2012.

12.     M. M. Manyuchi, “Production of Bio-Fertilizers from Vermicomposting of Waste Corn Pulp Blended with Cow Dung as a Solid Waste Management Approach”, PUBLISHAMERICA, ISBN 1627723986, 2013.

13.     C. Mphambela and F. Mhlanga, “Waste Recycling Project: Step in the Right Direction”, Zimbabwe Independent, 22 February, 2013.

14.     M. M. Manyuchi and A. Phiri, “Effective separation of Eisenia fetida earthworms from vermicasts using a cylindrical rotary trommel separator”, International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology, 2 (8), 4069-4072, 2013.

15.     M. M. Manyuchi., A. Phiri., P. Muredzi and N. Chirinda, “Effect of drying vermicompost on macronutrient composition”, International Journal of Inventive Engineering and Sciences, 2013.




Ajeet Bergaley, Anshuman Purohit

Paper Title:

Structural Analysis of Crane Hook Using Finite Element Method

Abstract: Crane hook are highly significant component used for lifting the load with the help of chain or links. In the present paper a crane hook is purchased from the local market for Finite element analysis. The hook was tested on the UTM machine in tension to locate the area having maximum stress and to locate the yield point. The model of hook is prepared in CAE software having dimension and material similar to the crane hook which was purchased from the market. The results obtained were compared with theoretical analysis. Then cross section in which minimum stress induced for given load was modified through FEM.

Finite Element Method (FEM), Crane Hook, Curved Beam, Universal Testing Machine (UTM).


1.        S. Vinodh, R. Ravikumar, (2012),"Application of probabilistic finite element analysis for   crane hook design", Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology, Vol. 10 Iss: 2 pp. 255 – 275.
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3.        ASME Standard B30.9, “Slings Safety Standard for Ca- bleways, Cranes, Derricks, Hoists, Hooks, Jacks and Slings,” 2006.

4.        ASME Standard B30.10, “Hooks Safety Standard for bleways, Cranes, Derricks, Hoists, Hooks, Jacks and Slings,” 2009.

5.        Department of Labour of New Zealand, “Approved Code of Practice for Cranes,” 3rd Edition, 2009.

6.        B. Ross, B. McDonald and S. E. V. Saraf, “Big Blue Goes Down. The Miller Park Crane   Accident,” Engi neering Failure Analysis, Vol. 14, No. 6, 2007 pp. 942-961.

7.        Fatigue cycle.`gkstarns/ME417M. Young, The Techincal Writers Handbook.  Mill Valley, CA: University Science, 1989.

8.        J. Petit, D. L. Davidson and S. Suresh, “Fatigue Crack Growth under Variable Amplitude Loading,” Springer Publisher, New York, 2007.J. Jones. (1991, May 10). Networks (2nd ed.) [Online]. Available:

9.        Y. Yokoyamal, “Study of structural relaxation-Induced Embrittlement of Hypoeutactic Zr-cu- Al nary Bulk Glassy Alloys,” Acta Materialia, Vol. 56, No. 20, 2008 pp. 6097-6108.

10.     Rashmi Uddanwadiker, “Stress Analysis of Crane Hook and Validation by Photo-Elasticity”, doi:10.4236/eng.2011.39115 Published Online September 2011 (

11.     R.K. Rajput, “Strength of Material”, S. Chand and company LTD.2002 published.

12.     J. Petit, D. L. Davidson and S. Suresh, “Fatigue Crack Growth under Variable Amplitude Loading,” Springer Publisher, New York, 2007

13.     Santosh Sahu, Ritesh Dewangan, Manas Patnaik, Narendra Yadav, “Study of Crane Hook Having Trapezoidal Section by Finite Element Method & Design of Experiments”, (IJMER) International Journal of Modern Engineering Research, Vol.2, Issue.4, July-Aug 2012 pp-2779-2781 ISSN: 2249-6645.

14.     Y. Yokoyamal, “Study of structural relaxation-Induced Embrittlement of Hypoeutactic Zr cu-Al nary Bulk Glassy Alloys,” Acta Materialia, Vol. 56, No. 20, 2008 pp. 6097-6108.

15.     Takuma Nishimura, Takao Muromaki, Kazuyuki Hanahara Yukio Tada, Shigeyuki Kuroda, and Tadahisa Fukui, “Damage Factor Estimation of Crane-Hook (A Database Approach with Image, Knowledge and Simulation)”, 4th International Workshop on Reliable Engineering Computing (REC 2010).

16.     Tae-Gu KIM et al, “ A case study on Engineering Failure Analysis of Link Chain”, safety and Health at Work 2010; 1:43-50

17.     Dr. Kamal Kumar & RC Ghai. “Mechanics of material” Khanna Publishers.

18.     Warning & application, Crosby group.




Sushma, Jyoti Pruthi

Paper Title:

Shortest Path Algorithms Techniques

Abstract: Shortest paths, or close to shortest paths, are commonly used in everyday situations. The paper reviews the various algorithms available for the problem. One of the famous technique Dijkstra’s algorithm solves the single-source shortest path problem on any directed graph in O(m+nlogn) worst-case time when a Fibonacci heap is used as the frontier set data structure. Paper Setup must be in A4 size with Margin: Top 1.78 cm, Bottom 1.78 cm, Left 1.78 cm, Right 1.65 cm, Gutter 0 cm, and Gutter Position Top. Paper must be in two Columns after Authors Name with Width 8.59 cm, Spacing 0.51 cm. Whole paper must be with: Font Name Times New Roman, Font Size 10, Line Spacing 1.05 EXCEPT Abstract, Keywords (Index Term), Paper Tile, References, Author Profile (in the last page of the paper, maximum 400 words), All Headings, and Manuscript Details (First Page, Bottom, left side).Paper Title must be in Font Size 24, Bold, with Single Line Spacing. Authors Name must be in Font Size 11, Bold, Before Spacing 0, After Spacing 16, with Single Line Spacing. Please do not write Author e-mail or author address in the place of Authors name. Authors e-mail, and their Address details must be in the   Manuscript details. Abstract and Keywords (Index Term) must be in Font Size 9, Bold, Italic with Single Line Spacing. All MAIN HEADING must be in Upper Case, Centre, and Roman Numbering (I, II, III…etc), Before Spacing 12, After Spacing 6, with single line spacing. All Sub Heading must be in Title Case, Left 0.25 cm, Italic, and Alphabet Numbering (A, B, C…etc), Before Spacing 6, After Spacing 4, with Single Line Spacing. Manuscript Details must be in Font Size 8, in the Bottom, First Page, and Left Side with Single Line Spacing.  References must be in Font Size 8, Hanging 0.25 with single line spacing. Author Profile must be in Font Size 8, with single line spacing. Fore more details, please download TEMPLATE HELP FILE from the website.

Best first search, combinatorial explosion , empirical time Euclidean, radius search.


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4.        R. Bauer, D. Delling, P. Sanders, D. Schieferdecker, D. Schultes, and D. Wagner. Combining Hierarchical and Goal-Directed Speed-Up Techniques for Dijkstra’s Algorithm. In C. C. McGeoch, editor, Proceedings of the 7th Workshop on Experimental Algorithms (WEA’08), volume 5038 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 303–318. Springer, June 2008.

5.        R. Bauer and D. Delling. SHARC: Fast and Robust Unidirectional Routing. In I. Munro and D. Wagner, editors, Proceedings of the 10th Workshop on Algorithm Engineering and Experiments (ALENEX’08), pages 13–26. SIAM, 2008.

6.        V.Batz, D. Delling, P. Sanders, and C. Vetter. Time-Dependent Contraction Hierarchies. In Proceedings of the 11th Workshop on Algorithm Engineering and Experiments (ALENEX’09). SIAM, 2009.

7.        Saunders, S., and Takaoka, T. Improved shortest path algorithmsfor nearly acyclic graphs. In Proc. Computing: The Australasian TheorySymposium, vol. 42 of Electronic Notes in Theoretical Computer Science. 2001.

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Ugale Shrikant, Godse Gaurav, Kale Onkar

Paper Title:

Visualization of Query Processing on Data Warehouse with UML

Abstract: Data transformations are the main subject of visual modeling concerning data warehousing dynamics. A data warehouse integrates several data sources and delivers the processed data to many analytical tools to be used by decision makers. Therefore, these data transformations are everywhere: from data sources to the corporate data warehouse by means of the ETL processes, from the corporate repository to the departmental data marts, and finally from data marts to the analytical applications Data warehousing involves complex processes that transform source data through several stages to deliver suitable information ready to be analyzed. Usually Database designer process and extract the data for their use or according to the business needs. Anyone from the organization can specify the query and get the data related to it from the data warehouse. There may be the case when the database designers or business analysts need to view query flow. In other words, if they want to analyze the flow of query in data warehouse that is how query actually flows from one table to another, they cannot easily visualize it. Though many techniques for visual modeling of data warehouses from the static point of view have been devised, only few attempts have been made to model the data flows involved in a data warehousing process. Besides, each attempt was mainly aimed at a specific application, such as ETL, OLAP, what-if analysis, data mining. Data flows are typically very complex in this domain; for this reason, designers would greatly benefit from a technique for uniformly modeling data warehousing flows for all applications. The visualization of query flow is interactive to the designer and analyst. If the designer have the model to view the internal flow then it will be easy for them to visualize the important data and attribute. UML has an activity diagram which shows the complete and accurate flow actions. So if we have activity diagram to specify the flow. It will be easy to the designers to understand the query.

OLTP, OLAP, ETL, data warehouse, data mining.


1.        Jes´us Pardillo1, Matteo Golfarelli2, Stefano Rizzi2, and Juan Trujillo1,Visual Modelling of Data Warehousing Flows with UML Profiles_, 2009.
2.        OMG: Unified Modeling Language (UML) Superstructure, version 2.1.2.(November2007).

3.        Luj´an-Mora, S., Trujillo, J., Song, I.Y.: A UML profile for multidimensional modeling in data warehouses.Data Knowl. Eng. 59(3), 725-769 (2006).

4.        A UML based Approach for Modeling ETLProcesses in Data Warehouses_ Juan Trujillo and Sergio Luj´an-Mora.

5.        Data Mapping Diagrams for Data Warehouse Design eith UML Sergio Lujan-Mora, Panos Vassiliadis and Juan Trujillo.

6.        Data warehouse design with uml  Sergio Luján-MoraAdvisor:Juan Trujillo.

7.        Jia Han, Micheline Kamber., “Data Mining concepts and techniques”, second edition 2006, Elsevier Inc.

8.        Cabibbo, L., Torlone, R.: From a Procedural to a Visual Query Language forOLAP. In: Proc. SSDBM, pp. 74–83 (1998).




Joseph Peter

Paper Title:

Modeling & Torque Ripple Minimization of Switched Reluctance Motor for High Speed Applications

Abstract: This paper deals with the analysis, study and modeling of the torque ripple minimization setup for the closed loop control of Switched Reluctance Motor.SRM is becoming more and more popular for high speed industrial application environments due to its rugged and robust construction. For low cost, variable speed drives SRM are most widely used. But the torque pulsations in SRM are relatively higher compared to sinusoidal machines due to the doubly salient structure of the motor.     Nonlinear inductance profile and pulse magnetizing make the torque ripple unavoidable. Both machine design and electronic control approaches have been used to minimize the torque ripples in SRM. This paper gives an extensive review of the origin of the torque ripple and approaches adopted to minimize the torque ripple.The mathematical modeling of three phase SRM is developed and integrated with different converter topologies in Matlab / Simulink environment along with control methods. The power spectrum density wave forms of torque are studied to verify the simulation results obtained.

Switched Reluctance Motor, mathematical modeling & simulation, converter topologies, torque ripple minimization, Power spectrum density.


1.        Torque ripple minimization in SRM drives by PWM current control.  Iqbal hussain , M.ehsani IEEE Jan    1996
2.        Simulation of a 6/4 SRM Based on Matlab/Simulink Environment . F .  Soares , P.J. Costa Branco      IEEE  July 2001

3.        Naresh Vattikuti, Vandana Rallabandi and B. G. Fernandes, “A Novel High Torque, Low Weight   Segmented   SRM", IEEE June 2008.

4.        Miller, T. J. E. (1993) Switched Reluctance Motors and   their Control.

5.        Modeling simulation analysis design and applications of SRM R. Krishnan

6.        A new power converter for SRM drive S.Gairola,Priti  and L .N. Paliwal IEEE 2010




Oguejiofor O. S, Aniedu A. N, Ejiofor H. C, Okolibe A. U

Paper Title:

Trilateration Based localization Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Network

Abstract: A Trilateration based localization algorithm for determining the position of nodes in a wireless sensor network is proposed. Details regarding the implementation of such algorithm are also discussed.  Experiments were performed in a testbed area containing anchor and blind nodes deployed in it to characterize the pathloss exponent and to determine the localization error of the algorithm. The pathloss exponent of the testbed area was computed to be n=2.2 where as the algorithm is shown to have localization error of 0.74m which is acceptable because is not much.

Algorithm, beacon, pathloss, Trilateration.


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Mahmood T. Yassen, Jawad K. Ali, Ali J. Salim, Seevan F. Abdulkareem, Ali I. Hammoodi, Mohammed R. Hussan

Paper Title:

A New Compact Slot Antenna for Dual-Band WLAN Applications

Abstract: The design of a simple two patch slotted antenna with an offset microstrip feed line is presented as a candidate for use in 2.4/5.2 GHz wireless local area network, WLAN,  applications. The first patch has been designed as a rectangular shape and the other has been designed as an inverted L shape with a protruding stub. The proposed antenna has been supposed to be printed on an FR4 substrate with a thickness of 0.8 mm and relative permittivity of 4.6. The resulting antenna has been found to have a compact size of 25.75x22 mm2. The antenna offers dual –band characteristics with -10 dB return loss bandwidths of 2.3996 – 2.6309 GHz and 5.1335 – 5.8065 GHz for the lower and the upper resonating bands respectively. This dual-band resonant behavior makes the proposed antenna covering many communication services such as ISM, RFID, WLAN and WiFi applications. Modeling and performance evaluation of the proposed antenna have been carried out using a method of finite integration technique (FIT) based EM simulator, the CST MICROWAVE STUDIO.

Compact antennas, Dual band antennas, Slot antennas, Wireless applications, WLAN.


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6.        Tilanthe, P., P.-C. Sharma, and T. K. Bandopadhyay, "A printed 2.4 GHz / 5.8 GHz dual-band monopole antenna with a protruding stub in the ground plane for WLAN and RFID applications," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, PIER 117, 425-434, 2011.

7.        Latif, S. I., L. Shafai, and S. K. Sharma, “Bandwidth enhancement and size reduction of microstrip slot antenna,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 53, No. 3, 994-1003, Mar. 2005.

8.        Jan, J. Y. and J.-W. Su, “Bandwidth enhancement of a printed wide-slot antenna with a rotated slot,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 53, No. 6, 2111-2114, Jun. 2005.

9.        Abdelaziz, A. A., "Bandwidth enhancement of microstrip antenna," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, PIER 63, 311-317, 2006.

10.     Chen, W., S. and K.-Y. Ku, “Band-rejected design of the printed open slot antenna for WLAN/WIMAX operation," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 56, No. 4, 1163-1169, Apr. 2008.

11.     Khodaei, G. F., J. Nourinia, and C. Ghobadi, “A practical miniaturized U-slot patch antenna with enhanced bandwidth," Prog. In Electromag. Res. B, PIER B, Vol. 3, 47-62, 2008.

12.     Ali, J. K., M. T. Yassen, M. R. Hussan, and A. J. Salim, “A Printed Fractal Based Slot Antenna for Multi-Band Wireless Communication Applications," PIERS Proceedings, 618-622, Moscow, Russia, August 19-23, 2012.

13.     Eldek, A. A., A. Z. Elsherbeni, and C. E. Smith, “Dual wideband square slot antenna with U-shaped printed tuning stub for personal wireless communication systems," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, PIER 53, 319-333, 2005.

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17.     Gai, S., Y.-C. Jiao, Y.-B. Yang, C.-Y. Li and J.-G. Gong, “Design of a novel microstrip-feed dual-band slot antenna for WLAN applications,” Progress In Electromagnetics Research Lett., PIER, 13, 75-81, 2010.

18.     Ooi, P. C., and K.-T. Selvan, “A dual-band circular slot antenna with an offset microstrip-feed line for PCS, UMTS, IMT-2000, ISM, BLUETOOTH, RFID and WLAN applications," Progress In Electromagnetics Research Lett., PIER, 16, 1-10, 2010.




Ameena Tabassum, S. Satheesh, Ch. Ganapathy Reddy

Paper Title:

Enhancement of Color Images with its RGB Representation using PDE

Abstract: Image enhancement is important factor for better visual representation. An extension of scalar diffusion-shock filter coupling model is proposed where noisy and blurred images are denoised and sharpened. The proposed method is based on single vectors of gradient magnitude and second derivatives. In this paper we are presenting proposed method by comparing with previous method. The proposed algorithm is more efficient than previous work without creating false colors. The performance of proposed method with previous method is evaluated with parameters such as Mean Structure Similarity Index Measurement (MSSIM) and Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR).

Enhancement, Diffusion, Shock filter, Noise, Blur.


1.        P. Perona and J. Malik, “Scale-space and edge detection using anisotropic diffusion,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell., vol. 12, no. 7, pp. 629–639, Jul. 1990.
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3.        L. Alvarez and L. Mazorra, “Signal and image restoration using shock filters and anisotropic diffusion,” SIAM J. Numer. Anal., vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 590–605, Apr. 1994.

4.        B. M. ter Haar Romeny, Front-End Vision and Multi-Scale Image Analysis. Berlin, Germany: Kluwer, 2003.

5.        S. Bettahar and A. B. Stambouli, “Shock filter coupled to curvature diffusion for image denoising and sharpening,” Image Vis. Comput., vol. 26, no. 11, pp. 1481–1489, Nov. 2008.

6.        S. Osher and L. I. Rudin, “Feature-oriented image enhancement using shock filters,” SIAM J. Numer. Anal., vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 919–940, Aug. 1990.

7.        L. Remaki and M. Cheriet, “Enhanced and restored signals as a generalized solution for shock filter models. Part I—Existence and  uniqueness.

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Neetu B. Yadav, Jayesh A. Shah, Rushabh A. Shah

Paper Title:

Pervious Concrete: Solution for Low Cost Construction

Abstract: Pervious concrete is known as No fines, gap graded or porous concrete. This concrete is a mixture of Cement, Corse Aggregate and with or without sand. Pervious concrete has an interconnected pore structure that freely allows the passage of water to flow through. This concrete is being used as paving material to solve or reduce the storm water runoff to the drainage system and minimize water logging problems. This paper covers some of the main properties and major uses of pervious concrete and its ecofriendly benefits. This concrete proves to be very beneficial if it utilize to its full extent in various flat work applications in India.

Eco-Friendly, Low Cost Construction, Pervious Concrete, Storm Water Management.


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9. 20durability%20per%20nrmca.pdf




Abdullah H. Alqahtani, Mohsin Iftikhar

Paper Title:

TCP/IP Attacks, Defenses and Security Tools

Abstract: The TCP/IP protocol suite is the foundation of Internet and is ubiquitous in almost all networks worldwide. It was written as a robust protocol, which is able to communicate despite node failures. The design parameters of TCP did not weigh security as important and placed an implicit trust on nodes. The result was a protocol which was reliable and robust, but contained myriad inherent security flaws, open to be exploited by a malicious entity as was amply demonstrated by Morris worm [1] in the early days of what is Internet today. This problem was aggravated by various faulty implementations of the TCP/IP protocol. Many vulnerabilities and corresponding attacks have been identified targeting TCP/IP protocol suite including spoofing attacks, denial of service attacks, authentication attacks and routing attacks etc. Design flaws of TCP/IP can be mitigated by applying layers of security mechanism in a network. But this application itself is open to exploitation. Various tools have been designed to analyze and identify the presence of such vulnerabilities and avenues of exploitation in TCP/IP suite. We describe the spectrum of attacks against TCP/IP suite and discuss various defense mechanisms and tools like firewalls, intrusion detection systems, protocol analyzers, sniffers and vulnerability scanners etc. We conclude with an analysis of these tools.

Network security, TCP/IP security, security tools, hacking, computer security.


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