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Volume-2 Issue-5: Published on April 15, 2014
Volume-2 Issue-5: Published on April 15, 2014

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Volume-2 Issue-5, April 2014, ISSN: 2319–6386 (Online)
Published By: Blue Eyes Intelligence Engineering & Sciences Publication Pvt. Ltd. 

Page No.



P. Baranitharan, G. Mahesh

Paper Title:

Alkali Treated Maize Fibers Reinforced with Epoxy Poly Matrix Composites

Abstract: Increasing the problem of Global warming, green house effects, climate changing, etc. So we want to use/ manufacturing products do not affect earth or not spoil the environment. So we want to make eco friendly products. This type of eco friendly products are manufacturing by major constituents of Natural or natural composite materials. Composite materials constitute a significant proportion of the engineered materials market ranging from everyday products to sophisticated niche applications. Natural fibers are worth as weight-saving materials. Natural fibers have been used to reinforce materials for over 3,000 years. Natural fibers have the advantage that they are renewable resources and have marketing appeal. Due to the demand and needs we want to find out new combination eco- friendly materials either recyclable, bio degradable or not affect the environment. In this fibers may be using for recyclable packaging, sealing, and fabrication applications. So want to study the properties of Maize fibers. Alkaline treating is essential one of Natural fibers treating. Alkaline treated Maize fibers properties are having better Tensile and elongation compare to raw Maize fibers. After the Alkali treatment go for Compression molding process and study the properties of the composites through conducting tensile test, TWAD Ph test and FTIR test etc. That result shows raw maize fiber better than alkali treated Maize fiber for using various applications.

Maize fibers, Bio degradable straw, Epoxy, Compression molding.


1.        Maya Jacob John, Sabu Thomas, “Bio fibers and bio composites. Carbohydrate polymers”, 2008, 71, pp.  343-64.
2.        L.Boopathi, P.S.Sampath, K.Mylsamy, “Investigation of   physical, chemical and mechanical properties of raw and alkali treated borassus fruit fiber”, Composites Part B, Article in press.

3.        A.C.H.Barreto, D.S.Rosa, P.B.A.Fechine, S.E.Mazzetto, “Properties of  sisal fibers treated by alkali solution and their application into cardanol-based bio composites”, Composites, Part A, 2011,pp.492-500

4.        Tran Huu Nam, Shinji Ogihara, Nguyen Huy Tung, Satoshi kobayashi,  “Effect of alkali treatment on interfacial and mechanical properties of coir fiber reinforced poly (butylenes succinate) biodegradable composites”, Composites Part B, 2011, pp.1648-56.

5.        Mylsamy K, Rajendran I, “Investigation on physio-chemical and mechanical properties of raw and alkali treated Agave American fiber”, Reinforced Plastic Composites, 2004; Vol.23, pp.1601.

6.        Grisha.C, Sanjeevamurthy, Guntiranga Srinivas, “Effect of alkali treatment, fiber loading and hybridization on tensile properties of sisal fiber, banana empty fruit bunch fiber and bamboo fiber reinforced thermo set composites”,ISSN:2250-3676.

7.        D.Chandramohan, Dr.K.Marimuthu, “Tensile and hardness test on natural fiber reinforced polymer composites material”, IJAEST, Vol. 1, pp.097-104.

8.        Omar Faruk, Andrzej K. Bledzki,Hans-Peter Fink,Mohini Sain, “Biocomposites reinforced with natural fibers: 2000-2010”,.Progress in Polymer Science.

9.        Mei-po Ho,Hao Wang,Joong-Hee Lee,Chun-kit Ho,Kin-tak Lau,Jinsong   Leng,David Hui, “Critical factors on manufacturing processes of natural fibers composites”,  Composite Part B; Article in press.

10.     Luisa Medina, Ralf Schledjewski,Alois K. Schlarb, “Process related mechanical properties of press molded natural fiber reinforced polymers”, Composites Science and Technology, 2009, Vol. 69, pp.1404-1411.

11.     N.Sgriccia, M.C.Hawley, M.Misra, “Characterization of natural fiber surfaces and natural fiber composites”, Composites Part A, 2008, Vol.39, pp.1632-37.

12.     Jochen Gassan, “A Study of fiber interface parameters affecting the fatigue behavior of natural fiber composites”, Composites Part A 2002, Vol.33, pp. 369-374.

13.     K.Oksman, M.Skrifvars,J.-F.Selin, Natural fibers as reinforcement polylactic acid (PLA) composites. Composites Science and Technology 2003; 63: 1317-24.

14.     Kristina Oksman, Aji P.Mathew, Runar Langstrom, Birgitha Nystrom, Kuruvilla Joseph, “The influence of fiber microstructure on fiber breakage and mechanical properties of natural fiber reinforced polypropylene”, Composites Science and Technology, 2009, Vo.69, pp. 1847-53.

15.     Lukas Sobczak, Reinhold W.Lang, Andreas Haider, “Polypropylene   composites with natural fibers and wood – General mechanical property profiles”, Composites Science and Technology 2012, Vol.72, pp. 550-57.

16.     N.Sgriccia, M.C.Hawley, M.Misra, “Characterization of natural fiber surfaces and natural fibers composites”, Composites, Part A 2008, Vol. 39, pp. 1632-37.

17.     A.Valadez-Gonzalez,J..Cervantes-Uc, R.Olayo, P.J.Herrera-Franco, “Effect of fiber surface treatment on the fiber-matrix bond strength of natural fiber reinforced composites”, Composites, Part B, 1999, Vol. 30, pp.309-20.

18.     Jochen Gassan, A “Study of fiber and interface parameters affecting the fatigue behavior of natural fiber composites”, Composites, Part A 2002, Vol. 33, pp. 369-74.

19.     F.G.Torres, M.L.Cubillas, “Study of the interfacial properties of natural fiber reinforced polyethylene”, Polymer testing, 2005, Vol. 24, pp.694-98.

20.     K.Oksman, M.Skrifvars, J-F.Selin, “Natural fibers as reinforcement in polylactic acid (PLA) composites”, Composites Science and Technology, 2003, Vol. 63, pp. 1317-24.

21.     K.Murali Mohan Rao, K.Mohana Rao, “Extraction and tensile propertiesof natural fibers: Vakka, date and bamboo”, Composite Structure, 2007, Vol.77, pp.288-95.

22.     A.V.Ratna Prasad, K.Mohana Rao, “Mechanical properties of natural fiber reinforced polyester composites: Jowar,sisal and bamboo” Materials and Design, 2011,Vol. 32, pp. 4658-63.

23.     P.V.Joseph, Kuruvilla Joseph, Sabu Thomas, “Effect of processing variables on the mechanical properties of sisal-fiber-reinforced polypropylene composites”, Composites Science and Technology 1999, Vol.59, pp.1625-40.

24.     Yan Li, Yiu-Wing Mai, Lin Ye.Sisal, “Fibre and its Composites: a review of recent developments,” Composites Science and Technology 2000, Vol.60, pp.2037-55.

25.     Mohammad K.Hossain,Mohammad W.Dewan,Mahesh Hosur, Shaik Jeelani, “ Mechanical performance of surface modified jute fiber reinforced biopol nano phased green composites”, Composites: Part B 2011, Vol.42, pp.1701-07.




Hussein Baqir

Paper Title:

A microcomputer Using Controller for Generation PWM

Abstract: Design and construction of microcomputer for inverter controlling, this inverter is designed by using power electronics switches type MOSFET. The MOSFET's are controlled by using pulses depending on sampled sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation (SPWM) technique with frequency ratio changing. Constant voltage to frequency (V/F) ratio is maintained through the program leading to constant flux speed range. The range of inverter output frequency is (0→50 Hz). This inverter output control the 3-ph induction motor speed.

MOSFET's, sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation (SPWM) technique.


1.        A.P. Malvino, "Digital computer electronics an introduction to microcomputers" second edition Mc. Graw- Hill Ine. 2008.
2.        M. A.  AL- Taee, "Microprocessor based 3- phase PWM waveform generator" proc. Of 11th Iraq scientific engineering conf. on electrical engineering Baghdad, 1993.

3.        You Lee and Y. Yith Sum, "Adaptive harmonic control in PWM inverters with fluctuating input voltage", IEEE. Trans. Ind. Electron, Vol. IE-33, NO. 1, FEB. 2009.

4.        S. Muruge San, "An overview of electric motor for space application", IEEE. Trans. Ind. Electron. Vol. IECI-28, NO. 4, Nov. 2007.

5.        Bowes, S. R., and Midoun. A, "Microprocessor Implementation of new optimal PWM switching strategies",  IEEE. Proc, Vol. 135, Pt.B, NO. 5, Sep. 1988. 

6.        M. Vaarnovisky, "A microcomputer based control signal generator for a three phase switching power inverter",  IEEE transaction on industry application Vol. 19, NO. 2, march 1999.

7.        Intel Corporation, "Microcontroller handbook", 2010.

8.        Mohammed. H. B, "Variable dc input voltage source inverter based on microcontroller" MSc. Thesis, university of technology Baghdad, 2005.




Atul Sureshpant Akotkar, Chaitali Choudhary

Paper Title:

Secure of Face Authentication using Visual Cryptography

Abstract: Visual Cryptography is a process of creating shares from an Image so that it would becomes unreadable for intruder or unauthenticated person. There are various measures on which performance of visual cryptography scheme depends, such as pixel expansion, contrast, security, accuracy, computational complexity, share generated is meaningful or meaningless, type of secret image. This technique encrypts a secret image into shares such that stacking a sufficient number of shares reveals the secret image.This paper implements visual cryptography for color images in a biometric application. The project modules have a strong authentication and robustness scheme. In this project, face authentication scheme helps in achieving robustness by locating an image face from n input image.

Face Detection, Color Recovery, Visual Cryptography, Image Authentication, Pixel by Pixel Matching.


1.        Arun Ross, Asem Othman, “Visual Cryptography for Biometric Privacy ”,IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION FORENSICS AND SECURITY , VOL.6 No.1, MARCH 2011.
2.        P. S. Revenkar, W. Z. Gandhare, “Secure iris authentication using visual cryptography”, IJCSIS,1947-5500,2010. 

3.        P. S. Revenkar, Anisa Anjum, W. Z. Gandhare, “Survey of Visual Cryptography Schemes”, International Journal of Security and its        Applictions, Vol.4, No.2, April 2010.

4.        Wen-Pinn Fang, “Non-Expansion Visual Secret Sharing In Reversible Style”, IJCSNS International Journal of Computer Science and Network Security, VOL.9 No.2, February 2009.

5.        Daoshun Wang, FengYi, XiaoboLi, “On General Construction For Extended Visual Cryptography Schemes”, Pattern Recognition 42 (2009),pp 3071 – 3082, 2009.

6.        Jung-San Lee, T. Hoang Ngan Le, “Hybrid (2, N) Visual Secret  Sharing Scheme For Color Images”, 978-1- 4244-4568-4/09, IEEE, 2009.

7.        Haibo Zhang, Xiaofei Wang, Wanhua Cao, Youpeng Huang , “Visual  Cryptography For General Access Structure By Multi-Pixel Encoding With Variable Block Size”, International Symposium on Knowledge Acquisition and Modeling, pp. 340-344, 2008.

8.        F. Liu1, C.K. Wu X.J. Lin , “Colour Visual Cryptography Schemes”,  IET Information Security, vol. 2, No. 4, pp 151-165, 2008.

9.        S. J. Shyu, S. Y. Huanga,Y. K. Lee, R. Z. Wang, and K. Chen,“Sharing multiple secrets in visual cryptography”, Pattern  Recognition, Vol. 40, Issue 12, pp. 3633 - 3651, 2007.

10.     A. Jain and A. Ross, Handbook of Biometrics, Springer, 2007.




K. Selvi,  Rana Majumdar

Paper Title:

Six Sigma - Overview of DMAIC and DMADV

Abstract: Six Sigma has been adopted by maximum of all the software development companies to identify the problems in software developments and its processes, to find optimal solutions for the problems identified, and improve the development processes so as to achieve company’s business goals. An effective Six Sigma initiative can help a company to identify processes that truly add value and will move everyone and every activity closer to the customer and the customer's needs. In this paper a project is selected in order to prove that implementation of the six sigma improves the software quality by changes the existing process of the software development. 

Keywords: Optimal solutions for the problems identified, six sigma improves the software quality.  
























24. CMM_A_SixSigma.htm

25. dmaic-vs-dmadv-what-is-the-difference


27. qid=20131108021640AA8RGuB

28. forum/discuss.php?d=94


30. ?article=1414&context=sei

31. 62942





Madhuri Sharma, Parveen Kumar

Paper Title:

Research Areas in Cloud Computing

Abstract: Now days every organization is migrating towards cloud computing as cloud computing is considered being more flexible and scalable as compared to other technologies. The technology simply means to provide the computing resources and services through a network. Amazon EC2, yahoo emails, Gmail, Google connect are few of the examples of cloud computing. Since cloud technology is widely adapted issues with this technology must be focused very carefully. This paper overviews the major areas which must be explored in cloud computing.

Cloud Computing, Cloud security, Data Centers, Denial of service, Data Migration, Green Cloud,  Scalability.


1.        Lizhe Wang, Gregor von Laszewski, Andrew Younge, Xi He, Marcel Kunze, Jie Tao, and Cheng Fu (2008) "Cloud Computing: a Perspective Study." New Generation Computing 28, no. 2 pp: 137-146.
2.        Wickremasinghe, Bhathiya, and Rajkumar Buyya. (2009) "CloudAnalyst: A CloudSim-based Tool for Modelling and Analysis of Large Scale Cloud Computing Environments." MEDC Project Report 22.6 \
3.        Sriram, Ilango, and Ali Khajeh-Hosseini (2010) "Research agenda in cloud technologies." arXiv preprint arXiv:1001.3259.
4.        Kapil Bakshi, (2011) "Considerations for cloud data centers: Framework, architecture and adoption." Aerospace Conference, IEEE. Version 2, pp 1-7

5.        Feng-Seng Chu, Kwang-Cheng Chen and Chen-Mou Cheng "Toward Green Cloud Computing" ACM, February, 2011

6.        A.M.Lonea, D.E.Popescu and H.Tianfield "Detecting DDoS Attacks in Cloud Computing Environment", ISSN Frbruary, 2013 pp-70-78

7.        Rao, N. Mallikharjuna, C. Sasidhar, and V. Sathyendra Kumar. (2010) "Cloud computing through mobile-learning." (IJACSA) International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications, Vol. 1, no. 6, pp: 42-47.

8.        Hassan Zaki and Danish Jamil "Security Issues in Cloud Computing and Counter Measures", April,2011, Vol.3 pp 2672-2676

9.        Hongwei Li, Yuanshun Dai, Ling Tian and Haomiao Yang "Identity- Based Authentication for Cloud Computing" ,2009 LNCS 5931,pp 157-166

10.     Salim Bitam. (2012) "Bees Life Algorithm for job scheduling in cloud computing." International Conference on Computing and Information Technology. ICCIT, pp 186- 191

11.     Samil Islam and Farah Habib Chanchary "Data Maigration: Connecting Databases in the Cloud" ICCIT 2012, pp: 450-455

12.     Alaa Eldeen S Ahmed, Abdulwahab K Alsammak and Essam Algizawy. Article: A New Approach to Manage and Utilize Cloud Computing Underused Resources. International Journal of Computer Applications 76(11):29-36, 2013

13.     Huang, Chun-Ying, "GamingAnywhere: An open cloud gaming system." Proceedings of the 4th ACM Multimedia Systems Conference. ACM, 2013.

14.     Gwendal Simon, Catherine Rosenbery, Sharon Choy and Bernard Wong "The Brewing Storm in Cloud Gaming: A Measurement Study on Cloud to End-User Latency" IEEE, 2012.

15.     Jerry Gao, Xiaoying Bai and Wei-Tek Tsai “Cloud Testing- Issues, Challenges, Need and Practice” SEIJ Vol. 1, No. 1, 2011 pp: 9-23

16.     Aarti Singh, Manisha Malhotra, “Agent Based Framework for Scalability in Cloud Computing”, ISSN 2229-3345 Vol. 3, No. 4, 2012, pp: 41-45




T. Sivaprsad, T. Krishnaiah, S. Timothy

Paper Title:

A Review on Modeling and Analysis of Composite Drive Shaft

Abstract: This paper deals with modeling and analysis of composite drive shaft by replacing the conventional stainless steel with composite materials. The materials which use in this analysis were E-glass epoxy, high strength carbon epoxy, and high modulus carbon epoxy.Conventional drive shaft is a two piece steel drive shaft in order to make it as a single long continuous  shaft we are using composite materials. Static, model and buckling analysis on these materials is done by using ANSYS software.

E-glassepoxy, Specific modulus, Degrees of Freedom, Torque.


1.        John Guide to composite materials, American society for metals, 1986.
2.        Beardmore, al. the potential for composites in structural Automotive Aplications J. of composites science and Technology 26 1986: pp. 251-281.

3.        T. RANGASWAMY, et al.”Optimal sizing and stacking sequence of composite drive shaft” ISSN1392-1320 materials science (medziagotyra). Vol. 11, no.2. 2005.

4.        Rajeev S and Krishnamurthy, C.S,1992 “Discrete optimization of structure using genetic Algorithm ” Journal of struct. Engg .ASCE Vol. 118PP. 1233-1250

5.        Pollard, A. polymer Matrix composites in drive line applications, GNK Tech., uk, 1989.

6.        Goldberg, D. E. Genetic Algorithms in Search, Optimization and Machine Learning, Reading MA, Addison-Wesley.

7.        Vijayarangan, S., Rajendran, I. Optimal Design of a Composite Leaf Spring Using Genetic Algorithm Computers and Structures 79 2001: pp. 1121 – 1129.

8.        T.Rangaswamy, et. al “Optimal Design and Analysis of Automotive Composite Drive Shaft”, International Symposium of Research Students on Materials Science and Engineering December 2002-04 Chennai India

9.        Kim C D et. al. 1992, “Critical speed Analysis of Laminated Drive Shafts”, Composite Engg. Vol.3, pp. 633-643.

10.     J. H. Park, J. H. Wang 2001, “Stacking sequence Design of Composite Laminates for maximum Strength Using Genetic Algorithm”, Journal of Composite Structures, Vol.52, pp. 217-231.




Rajula Aravinda Reddy, J. C. Narayana Swamy, R. Govardhana Reddy

Paper Title:

Detecting Embedded Devices using Network Discovery

Abstract: Modern heterogeneous networks present a great challenge for network operators and engineers from a management and configuration perspective. The Network Discovery System is a network management framework that addresses these challenges. NDS offers centralized network configuration management functionality, along with providing options for extending the framework with additional features. The devices managed by NDS are stored in its Configuration Database (CDB). However, currently there is no mechanism for automatically adding network devices to the configuration of NDS, thus each device’s management parameters have to be entered manually. The goal of this paper is to develop a software module for NDS that simplifies the process of initial NDS configuration by allowing NDS to automatically add network devices to the ND CDB. Apart from developing the software module for discovery, this paper aims to summarize existing methods and to develop new methods for automated discovery of network devices with the main focus on differentiating between different types of devices. A credential-based device discovery method was developed and utilized to make advantage of known credentials to access devices, which allows for more precise discovery compared to some other existing methods. The selected methods were implemented as a component of NDS to provide device discovery functionality. Python language is used as tool to develop code.

Discovery Protocols Embedded Device Discovery, Embedded Device Configuration, Network Discovery System, Network Management.

1.        J. Case, R. Mundy, D. Partain, and B. Stewart, “Introduction and Applicability Statements for Internet-Standard Management Framework,” RFC 3410 (Informational), Internet Engineering Task Force, Dec. 2002
2.        K. McCloghrie, D. Perkins, and J. Schoenwaelder, “Structure of Management Information Version 2 (SMIv2),” RFC 2578 (INTERNET STANDARD), Internet Engineering Task Force, Apr. 1999.

3.        R. Stadler, lectures notes for the course EP2300 Management of Networks and Networked Systems, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Aug.-Oct. 2012, unpublished.

4.        J. Yu and I. Al Ajarmeh, “An Empirical Study of the NETCONF Protocol,” in Sixth International Conference on Networking and Services (ICNS), March 2010.

5.        R. Enns, M. Bjorklund, J. Schoenwaelder, and A. Bierman, “Network Configuration Protocol (NETCONF),” RFC 6241 (Proposed Standard), Internet Engineering Task Force, Jun. 2011

6.        J. Schönwälder, M. Björklund, and P. Shafer, “Network configuration management using NETCONF and YANG,” in IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 48, no. 9, September 2010.

7.        M. Wasserman, “Using the NETCONF Protocol over Secure Shell (SSH),” RFC 6242 (Proposed Standard), Internet Engineering Task Force, Jun. 2011

8.        M. Badra, “NETCONF over Transport Layer Security (TLS),” RFC 5539 (Proposed Standard), Internet Engineering Task Force, May 2009.

9.        T. Goddard, “Using NETCONF over the Simple Object Access Protocol,” RFC 4743 (Historic), Internet Engineering Task Force, Dec. 2006.

10.     E. Lear and K. Crozier, “Using the NETCONF Protocol over the Blocks Extensible Exchange Protocol (BEEP),” RFC 4744 (Historic), Internet Engineering Task Force, Dec. 2006.

11.     M. Bjorklund, “YANG - A Data Modeling Language for the Network Configuration Protocol (NETCONF),” RFC 6020 (Proposed Standard), Internet Engineering Task Force, Oct. 2010.

12.     J. Schönwälder and H. Langendörfer, “How to Keep Track of Your Network Configuration,” in Proceedings of the 7th USENIX conference on System administration (LISA 1993), 1993.

13.     G.G. Richard, “Service advertisement and discovery: enabling universal device cooperation,” Internet Computing, IEEE, vol. 4, no. 5.

14.     “IEEE std 802-2001, Standard for Local and Metropolitan Area Networks: Overview and Architecture,” February 2002.

15.     Luo Junhai, Fan Mingyu, and Ye Danxia, “Research on Topology Discovery for IPv6 Networks,” in Software Engineering, Artificial Intelligence, Networking, and Parallel/Distributed Computing, 2007, SNPD 2007. 8th ACIS International Conference, vol. 3, 2007.

16.     U. Blumenthal and B. Wijnen, “User-based Security Model (USM) for version 3 of the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMPv3),” RFC 3414 (INTERNET STANDARD), Internet Engineering Task Force, Dec.

17.     S. Thomson, T. Narten, and T. Jinmei, “IPv6 Stateless Address Autoconfiguration,” RFC 4862 (Draft Standard), Internet Engineering Task Force, Sep. 2007.




Akshatha Prabhu K

Paper Title:

Attack against Anonymous Network

Abstract: This paper focuses on the   active watermarking technique, which has been active in the past few years. This paper proposes a flow-marking scheme based on the direct sequence spread spectrum technique by utilizing a pseudo-noise code. By interfering with the rate of a suspect sender’s traffic and marginally changing the traffic rate, the attacker can embed a secret spread-spectrum signal into the target traffic. The embedded signal is carried along with the target traffic from the sender to the receiver, so the investigator can recognize the corresponding communication relationship, tracing the messages despite the use of anonymous networks. However, in order to accurately confirm the anonymous communication relationship of users, the flow-marking scheme needs to embed a signal modulated by a relatively long length of PN code, and also the signal is embedded into the traffic flow rate variation. After the signal is embedded and delay is added between cells, we gone generate Mimo graph, it gives the probability of how much data is been extracted.

Attack against TOR.

1.        L. Øverlier and P. Syverson, “Locating hidden servers,” in Proc. IEEE S&P,    May    2006, pp. 100–114.
2.        R. Dingledine, N. Mathewson, and P. Syverson, “Tor: The second  generation onion router,” in Proc. 13th USENIX Security Symp., Aug. 2004, p. 21.

3.        Q. X. Sun, D. R. Simon, Y. Wang, W. Russell, V. N. Padmanabhan,and L. L. Qiu, “Statistical identification of encrypted Web browsing traffic,” in Proc. IEEE S&P, May 2002, pp. 19–30.

4.        A. Serjantov and P. Sewell, “Passive attack analysis for connection based anonymity systems,” in Proc. ESORICS,Oct. 2003, pp. 116–131

5.        R. Pries, W. Yu, S. Graham, and X. Fu, “On performance bottleneck of anonymous communication networks,” in Proc. 22nd IEEE IPDPS, Apr. 14–28, 2008, pp. 1–11




Priyesh Pandya, Vikas Gupta

Paper Title:

Enhancing Analog to Digital Converter Resolution Using Oversampling Technique

Abstract: This paper is going to expose a method that gives us the possibility to use a low-resolution Successive Approximation Register (SAR) Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC) in high resolution measurements. Oversampling and averaging can increase the resolution of a measurement without resorting to the cost and complexity of using expensive off-chip ADC’s. This paper discusses about oversampling method for increase the resolution of a 12-bits ADC to 16-bits ADC. Oversampling method also rejects the noise by using averaging or moving averaging method. Oversampling method provides a software-based technique, resulting in an improved effective number of bits (ENOB) in the conversion result. It can be only used for measuring very low frequency or continuous signals, but the costs are lower compared to the price of the same high-resolution converter. This   paper discusses how to increase the resolution of ADC measurements by oversampling and averaging. Additionally, more in-depth description on types of ADC, theory of oversampling technique and example code on utilizing oversampling and averaging.

Analog to Digital Converter, Oversampling, Decimation.

1.        Improving analog to digital converter’s resolution using the oversampling technique by Flaviu Ilie BOB, Nicolae Cristian PAMPU, Liviu Teodor CHIRA.
2.        Jayanath Murthy Madapura, Achieving Higher ADC Resolution using Oversampling,  Microchip Technology Inc., 2008.

3.        AVR121:   Enhancing ADC resolution by oversampling, ATMEL 8-bit AVR Microcontrollers, Application Note.

4.        Atmel AVR1629: XMEGA ADC Oversampling, Application Note.

5.        AN1152:   Achieving Higher ADC Resolution Using Oversampling, Application Note.

6.        SPMA001A: ADC Oversampling Techniques for Stellaris Family Microcontrollers, Application Note.

7.        SPMU272: Stellaris LM4F232 Evaluation Board, user manual.




Anshu Anand Jethi, Ajay Rana

Paper Title:

GSM Security

Abstract: This paper demonstrates the secure communication in GSM. Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) is a second generation cellular standard developed to provide voice services and data delivery using digital modulation. With its great features like providing access to users at anytime and anywhere, mobile communication is very attractive among the users as well as operators and service providers. But, in spite of of several advantages, mobile communication also has been facing many security problems. In 2G and 3G technologies viz GSM, GPRS and UMTS, the architecture comprises of mainly three nodes; the mobile station (MS), Visitor Location Register/Serving GPRS Support Node (VLR/SGSN), and Home Location Register/Authentication Center (HLR/AuC). These nodes are involved to encrypt/decrypt the data and authenticate the user (MS) in GSM, GPRS and UMTS.


1.        Friedhelm Hillebrand (editor): GSM and UMTS, the creation of Global Mobile Communication, Wiley 2001
2.        European Telecommunications Standards Institute, Recommendation GSM 02.17,"Subscriber Identity Module".

3.        European Telecommunications Standards Institute, Recommendation GSM 03.20, "Security Related Network Functions".

4.        Marie-Bernadette Pautet, Thomas Haug (Foreword by), Michel Mouly, GSM System for Mobile Communication.

5.        David Margrave, “GSM Security and Encryption”,

6.        Lauri Pesonen, “GSM Interception”,

7.        Josyula R Rao, Pankaj Rohatgi, Helmut Scherzer and Stefan Tinguely Partitioning Attacks:Or how to rapidly clone some GSM cards”, IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy.