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Volume-4 Issue-9: Published on February 15, 2017
02
Volume-4 Issue-9: Published on February 15, 2017

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Volume-4 Issue-9, February 2017, ISSN: 2319–6386 (Online)
Published By: Blue Eyes Intelligence Engineering & Sciences Publication Pvt. Ltd. 

Page No.

1.

Authors:

Muddasar Ali, Khadija Jalal, M. Ejaz Hassan

Paper Title:

Matlab Simulation of Variable Voltage Frequency Drive for 3-Phase Induction Motor Using Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) Technique

 Abstract:  Induction motors are widely used in many industrial processes. The speed of AC motors remains constant because it takes rated power from supply and therefore it causes problems when less motor speed is needed. Improvement in power electronics technology though advancements in semiconductor electronic devices have led to development of variable frequency motor drive (VFD), an electronic device used to control speed of an induction motor with increased efficiency, reliability and low cost. This paper carries out simulation of a variable frequency drive using MATLAB/SIMULINK model. Control of speed of induction motor was successfully achieved from zero to nominal speed by varying the frequency of Pulse width modulation (PWM) Generator.

Keywords:
PWM, VFD, Variable frequency drive, Pulse width modulation.


References:

1.    Enemuoh F.O,’’ Simulation and Performance Analysis of A Variable Frequency Drive in Speed Control of Induction Motor” International Journal of Engineering Inventions e-ISSN: 2278-7461, p-ISSN: 2319-6491 Volume 3, Issue 5 (December 2013) PP: 36-41
2.    Krupa Gandhi,” Simulation of PWM inverter for VFD application” International Journal of Engineering Research and Development e-ISSN: 2278-067X, p-ISSN: 2278-800X, www.ijerd.com Volume 10, Issue 4 (April 2014), PP.94-103

3.    Randall L. Foulke, Principles and Applications of Variable Frequency Drives NC AWNA. WEA Spring Conference New Bern, North Carolina April, 2009.

4.    Ned Mohan, Tore M. Undaland and William P. Robbins Power electronics (converters, application and design) third edition, John Wiley and sons INC.

5.    P.C. Sen Power electronics McGraw- Hill Education Private Limited, Second edition 2009. [4] Theraja A. Text book of electrical technology 1997, S. Chand and Company LTD.

6.    Dennis p. Connors, “Application considerations for AC drives”, IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, Vol. IA-19, no. 3, pp. 455-460, May/June 1983 .

7.    Thomas A. Lipo, “Recent progress AC motor in the development of Solid-State Drives”, IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, Vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 105-117, April 1988.

8.    Paresh C. Sen, “Electric motor drives and control-past, present, and future”, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, Vol. 37, no. 6, pp. 562-575, December 1990.

9.    S Takiyar “Hybrid Method for Control of Induction Motor”, International Journal of Computer and Electrical Engineering, Vol. 5, No. 4, pp.350-355, August 2013.


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2.

Authors:

Daniel N. Njoroge

Paper Title:

Characterization of Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes using Comparative Laser Technique

 Abstract: This study was based on characterization of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) with Raman spectroscopy. The SWNTs samples were subjected to Raman scattering with lasers of 532 nm and 633 nm. The study outlines use of Raman spectroscope, preparation of samples under investigation, obtaining and finally analyzing the Raman spectra. In this study, the samples were prepared for Raman spectroscopy inspection, sampling parameters optimized to obtain good spectra and Raman spectra analyzed. Raman spectroscopy is an important material testing tool. It can be used to sort materials which have been mixed since every material has unique chemical structure which translates to a unique spectrum. Most importantly, it can also be used to identify defects in a sample.

Keywords:
 Carbon nanotubes, Raman spectroscopy.


References:

1.     Hollas, M.J., Modern Spectroscopy. Fourth Edition ed. 2004: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
2.     Vandenabeele, P., Practical Raman Spectroscopy: An Introduction. 2013: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

3.     Larkin, P., Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy: Principles and Spectra Interpretation. 2011: Elsevier.

4.     Jorio, et al., Characterizing carbon nanotube samples with resonance Raman scattering. New Journal of Physics, 2003. 5: p. 139.1-139.17}.

5.     Sergei M. Bachilo, et al., Structure-Assigned Optical Spectra of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes. Science, 2002. 298: p. 2361-2366.


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3.

Authors:

Monicah Wairimu Chonge

Paper Title:

A Study on the Performance Improvement Measures for Contractors in Kenya 

Abstract:  The performance of contractors in the construction industry in Kenya as in many other parts of the world has been faulted and blamed as one of the reasons as to why they fail to secure major construction projects in the country. This has led to a number of studies aimed at finding out the factors affecting the performance of contractors in the various construction industries of the world, with the aim of finding ways of improving on it. This study therefore sought to find out the performance improvement measures that are specific to the construction industry in Kenya and that can be adopted in a bid to improve on the performance of contractors in the country. The study employed the qualitative strategy as well as the cross-sectional research design. Qualitative data was collected through the use of structured questionnaires with an open ended question which were administered to local contractors of category NCA 1, 2 and 3. The contractors were sampled using the stratified random sampling and the systematic random sampling techniques. The method used for data analysis was thematic analysis. Four themes stood out as measures that can be adopted to improve on the performance of contractors in the country. These were: financial, managerial, technical and external measures.

Keywords:
Performance improvement measures, Construction industry, Contractors performance


References:

1.       Abdul-Rahman, H., Berawi, A. R., Berawi, A. R., Mohamed, O., Othman, M., & Yahya, I. A. (2006). Delay Mitigation in the Malaysian Construction Industry. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 132(2), 125–133.
2.       Aftab, H. M., Ismail, A. R., & Ade, A. A. (2012). Time and cost performance in construction projects in southern and central regions of Penisular Malasyia. International Journal of Advances in Applied Sciences, 20, 45–52.

3.       Agbenyega, I. (2014). Quality management practices of building construction firms in Ghana. (Doctoral dissertation, KWAME NKRUMAH UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY).

4.       Akadiri, P. O., Chinyio, E. A., & Olomolaiye, P. O. (2012). Design of a sustainable building: A conceptual framework for implementing sustainability in the building sector. Buildings, 2(2), 126–152.

5.       Chan, A., Scott, D., & Chan, A. (2004). Factors Affecting the Success of a Construction Project. Journal of Construction Engineering Management, 130(1), 153–155.

6.       Enshassi, A., Al-Najjar, J., & Kumaraswamy, M. (2009). Delays and cost overruns in the construction projects in the Gaza Strip. Journal of Financial Management of Property and Construction, 14(2), 126–151.

7.       Esin, T., & Cosgun, N. (2007). A study conducted to reduce construction waste generation in Turkey. Building and Environment, 42(4), 1667–1674.

8.       Fang, D. P., Xie, F., Huang, Y. X., & Li, H. (2004). Factor analysis-based studies on construction workplace safety management in China. International Journal of Project Management, 22(1), 43–49.

9.       Gunduz, M., & Hanna, A. S. (2005). Benchmarking change order impacts on productivity for electrical and mechanical projects. Building and Environment, 40, 1068–1075.

10.    Gwaya, O. A., Masu, S. M., & Githae, W. (2014). A critical Analysis of The Causes Of Project Management Failures in Kenya.

11.    KNBS. (2012). Kenya National Bureau of statistics. Nairobi.

12.    Lee, A., Cooper, R., & Aouad, G. (2001). A methodology for designing performance measures for the UK construction industry. Salford University.

13.    Lim, C., & Mohamed, M. (2000). An exploratory study into recurring construction problems. International Journal of Project Management, 18, 267–273.

14.    Makulsawatudom, & Emsley. (2002). Critical factors influencing construction productivity in Thailand. In Proceeding of CIB 10th International Symposium Construction Innovation and Global Competitiveness, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA.

15.    Munns, A. K., & Bjeirmi, B. F. (1996). The role of project management in achieving project success. International Journal of Project Management, 14(2), 81–87.

16.    Ng, S. T., Cheng, K. P., & Skitmore, R. M. (2005). A framework for evaluating the safety performance of construction contractors. Building and Environment, 40(10), 1347–1355.

17.    Parrif, M. K., & Sanvido, V. E. (1993). Checklist of critical success factors for building projects. Journal of Management in Engineering, 9(3), 243–249.

18.    Rahman, I. A., Memon, A. H. A., A., Ade, A., & Abdullah, N. H. (2012). Modeling Causes of Cost Overrun in Large Construction Projects with Partial Least SquareSEM Approach: Contractor’s Perspective. Research Journal of Applied Sciences, 5.

19.    Richey, S. (2012). Determinants of Community Satisfaction and its Relative Importance for Life Satisfaction.

20.    Sgourou, E., Katsakiori, P., Goutsos, S., & Manatakis, E. (2010). Assessment of selected safety performance evaluation methods in regards to their conceptual, methodological and practical characteristics. Safety Science, 48(8), 1019–1025.

21.    Shen, L. Y., Kiasale, K., Bagrov, A. V., Lukin, V. P., Chen, T., & Yu, X. D. (2006). Performance of coherent DPSK free space official communication. IEEE Transactions and Communications, 54(4), 604–607.

22.    Shen, L. Y., Li Hao, J., Tam, V. W. Y., & Yao, H. (2007). A checklist for assessing sustainability performance of construction projects. Journal of Civil Engineering and Management, 13(4), 273–281.

23.    Shen, L. Y., & Tam, V. W. Y. (2002). Implementation of environmental management in the Hong Kong construction industry. International Journal of Project Management, 20(7), 535–543.

24.    Teo, E. A. L., Ling, F. Y. Y., & Chong, A. F. W. (2005). Framework for project managers to manage construction safety. International Journal of Project Management, 23(4), 329–341.

25.    Tepper, B. J., Carr, J. C., Breaux, D. M., Geider, S., Hu, C., & Hua, W. (2009). Abusive supervision, intentions to quit, and employees’ workplace deviance: A power/dependence analysis. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 109(2), 156–167.

26.    Törner, M., & Pousette, A. (2009). Safety in construction–a comprehensive description of the characteristics of high safety standards in construction work, from the combined perspective of supervisors and experienced workers. Journal of Safety Research, 40(6), 399–409.

27.    Tumi, S. A. H., Omran, A., & Pakir, A. H. K. (2009). Causes of delay in construction industry in Libya. In The International Conference on Economics and Administration (pp. 265–272).


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4.

Authors:

Cengiz POLAT

Paper Title:

An Enhanced Solid-Shell Element Formulation with Co-Rotational Approach

Abstract: An enhanced eight node solid-shell element formulation is demonstrated.  The enhanced strain method is used to alleviate the locking problems. A co-rotational formulation is adopted in the formulation, thus geometric nonlinearity is taken into account by the rotation of the local coordinate system. Several benchmark problems are studied to demonstrate the efficiency of the element.

Keywords:
Co-rotational formulation, solid-shell element, the enhanced strain method.


References:

1.       Polat C., 2010. Co-rotational formulation of a solid-shell element utilizing the ANS and EAS methods, Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, 3(48), 771-788.
2.       Polat, C., 2010. An assessment of a co-rotational EAS brick element. Latin American Journal of Solids and Structures. 7, 77–89.

3.       Felippa, CA, Haugen, B., 2005.  A unified formulation of small strain corotational finite elements: I. Theory. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering 194, 2285-2335.

4.       Wempner, G., 1969. Finite elements, finite rotations and small strains of flexible shells. The International Journal of Solids and Structures 5, 117-153.

5.       Argyris, JH., Bahner, H., Doltsnis, J., et al. 1979. Finite element method-the natural approach. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering 17/18, l-106.

6.       Belytschko, T., Glaum, LW., 1979. Application of higher order corotational stretch theories to nonlinear finite element analysis. Computers and Structures 10, 175-182.

7.       Crisfield, MA., Moita, GF., 1996. A co-rotational formulation for 2-D continua including incompatible modes. International Journal of Numerical Methods in Engineering 39, 2619-2633.

8.       Moita, GF., Crisfield, MA., 1996. A finite element formulation for 3-d continua using the co-rotational technique. International Journal of Numerical Methods in Engineering 39, 3775-3792.

9.       Urthaler, Y., Reddy, JN., 2005. A corotational finite element formulation for the analysis of planar beams.  Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering 21, 553-570.

10.    Hauptmann, R., Schweizerhof, K., 1998. A systematic development of ‘solid-shell’ element formulations for linear and non-linear analyses employing only displacement degrees of freedom. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 42, 49-69.

11.    Miehe, C., 1998. Theoretical and computational model for isotropic elastoplastic stress analysis in shells at large strains. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering 155, 193-233.

12.    Hauptmann, R., Scheizerhof, K., Doll, S., 2000. Extension of the “solid-shell” concept for application to large elastic and large elastoplastic deformations. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 49, 1121-1141.

13.    Sze, KY., Yao, LQ., 2000. A hybrid stress ANS solid-shell element and its generalization for smart structure modelling. Part I: solid-shell element formulation. International Journal of Numerical Methods in Engineering 48, 545-564.

14.    Sze, KY., Yao, LQ., Yi, S., 2000. A hybrid stress ANS solid-shell element and its generalization for smart structure modelling. Part II: smart structure modelling. International Journal of Numerical Methods in Engineering 48, 565-582.

15.    Harnau, M., Schweizerhof, K., 2002. About linear and quadratic ”solid-shell” elements at large deformations. Computers and Structures 80, 805-817.

16.    Vu-Quoc, L., Tan,  XG., 2003. Optimal solid shells for non-linear analyses of multilayer composites. I. Statics. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering 192, 975-1016.

17.    Sousa, RJA., Cardoso, RPR., Fontes Valente, RA., Yoon, YW., Gracio, JJ., Natal Jorge, RM., 2004. A new one-point quadrature enhanced assumed strain (eas) solid-shell element with multiple integration points along thickness- part 1: geometrically linear applications. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 62, 952-977.

18.    Tan, XG., Vu-Quoc, L., 2005. Optimal solid shell element for large deformable composite structures with piezoelectric layers and active vibration control. International Journal of Numerical Methods in Engineering 64, 1981-2013.

19.    Sousa, RJA., Cardoso, RPR., Valente, RAF., Yoon, JW., Gracio, JJ., Jorge, RMN., 2006. A new one-point quadrature Enhanced Assumed Strain solid-shell element with multiple integration points along thickness Part II – Nonlinear Applications, International Journal of Numerical Methods in Engineering 67, 160-188.

20.    Zienkiewicz, OC., Taylor, RL., Too, JM., 1971. Reduced integration techniques in finite element method. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 3, 275-290.

21.    Hughes, TJR., Taylor, RL., Kanoknukulchai, W., 1977. A simple and efficient finite element for plate bending. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 11, 1529-1543.

22.    Hughes, TJR., Cohen, M., Haroun, M., 1978. Reduced and selective integration techniques in the finite element analysis of plates. Nuclear Engineering and Design 46, 203-222.

23.    Bathe, KJ., Dvorkin, EN., 1986. A formulation of general shell elements- The use of mixed interpolation of tensorial components. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 22, 697-722.

24.    Bucalem, ML., Bathe, KJ., 1993. Higher-order MITC general shell elements. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 36, 3729-3754.

25.    Simo, JC., Rifai, MS., 1990. A class of mixed assumed strain methods and the method of incompatible modes. International Journal for Numerical Methods in
Engineering 29, 1595-1638.

26.    Andelfinger, U., Ramm, E., 1993. EAS-elements for two-dimensional, three-dimensional, plate and shell structures and their equivalence to HR-elements. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 36, 1311-1337.

27.    Klinkel S., Wagner W., 1997. A geometrical non-linear brick element. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 40, 4529-4545.

28.    Valente, RAF., 2004. Developments on shell and solid-shell finite elements technology in nonlinear continuum mechanics. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Porto, Portugal.

29.    Alves de Sousa RJ, Natal Jorge RM, Fontes Valente RA, César Sá JMA., 2003. A new volumetric and shear locking-free EAS element. Engineering Computations, 20, 896–925.

30.    Sze, KY., Liu, XH., Lo, SH., 2004. Popular benchmark problems for geometric nonlinear analysis of shells. Finite Elements in Analysis and Design 40, 1551-1569.

31.    Kreja I., Schmidt R., Reddy, JN., 1997. Finite elements based on a first-order shear deformation moderate rotation shell theory with applications to the analysis of composite structures, International Journal of Non-Linear Mechanics 32, 1123–1142.

32.    Chróścielewski J., Makowski J., Stumpf H., 1992. Genuinely resultant shell finite elements accounting for geometric and material non-linearity, International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 35, 63–94.


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