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Volume-3 Issue-4

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Volume-3 Issue-4, March 2015, ISSN: 2319–6386 (Online)
Published By: Blue Eyes Intelligence Engineering & Sciences Publication Pvt. Ltd. 

Page No.



V. Gokula Krishnan, N. Sankar Ram

Paper Title:

A Cost Effective RSU Placement Strategy for Secured Communication in VANET

Abstract: Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) enable vehicles to communicate with each other but require efficient and robust routing protocols for their success. In this proposed system, we exploit the infrastructure of Road Side units (RSUs) to efficiently and reliably route packets in VANETs. This system operates by using vehicles to carry and forward messages from a source vehicle to carry and forward messages from a source vehicle to a nearby RSU and, if needed, route these messages through the RSU network and, finally   send them from an RSU to the destination vehicle. In that proposed system is mostly critical for users who are far apart and want to communicate using their vehicles' onboard units. It accounts for both access patterns in our placement strategy and formulate this placement problem via an integer linear programming model such that the aggregate throughput in the network can be maximized. The performance of proposed system evaluated using the ns2 simulation platform. The results show that proposed strategy leads to the best performance as compared with the uniformly distributed placement and the hot spot placement. More importantly, this solution needs the least number of RSUs to achieve the maximal aggregate throughput in the network, indicating that our proposed system is indeed a cost effective yet highly efficient placement strategy for vehicular networks.

Vehicular ad hoc Network (VANET), Roadside units (RSU), Distributed hash table (DHT), Dedicated short communication (DSR), Capacity Maximization Placement (CMP).


1.        Ahlswede .R, Cai.N, Li.S, and Yeung.R(2012), “Network information flow,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, vol. 46, no. 4, pp. 1204–1216.
2.        Atef   Abdrabou   and    Weihua    Zhuang(2012),”  Probabilistic    delay control   and    road  side   unit  placement  for    vehicular   adhoc  networks with  disrupted  connectivity”, IEEE.  vol.29, no. 1,  pp. 129-139.

3.        Aslam .B,     Wang.  P,   and     Zou    .C  (2011),     “An      economical,     deployable     and   secure    vehicular   ad hoc   network,”  in      Proc.   MILCOM,   San      Diego,   CA  , pp. 1–7.

4.        Bae .Y and     Vaidya N.H , “Location-aided  routing  (LAR)  in    mobile ad   hoc     networks,” in  Proc. MobiCom, Dallas, TX, pp. 66–75.

5.        Casteigts .A,    Nayak    .A,  and  Stojmenovic.I,  “Communication  protocols for  vehicular  vehicular   adhoc networks,” Wirel.  Commun.  Mobile  Comput., vol. 11, no. 5, Pp.567– 582.

6.        Chung-Ju Chang, Tsung-Jung Wu and Wanjiun   Liao  (August 2012) ,” A   cost-effective   strategy  for  road-side unit  placement in  vehicular networks”,  IEEE Trans.   Comm, vol. 60, no. 8, pp. 2295-2303.

7.        Daniel   Baselt,   Florian   Knorr,  Martin  Mauve,  and  Michael   Schreckenberg ,   (October 2012), ” Reducing   Traffic Jams  via  VANETs”,   IEEE  Trans.   Vehicular   Tech,   vol. 61,   no.8, pp.  3490- 3498.

8.        Ding .Y, Wang .C, and  Xiao.L (Sep. 2007), “A   static-node   assisted adaptive   routing protocol   in   vehicular   networks ,”   in    Proc.     VANET,       pp. 59–68.

9.        Frank  .R,  Giordano .E,   and    Gerla .M,     “TrafRoute:  A      different   approach   to   routing     in   vehicular  networks,”  in Proc.     VECON,     pp. 521–528.

10.     Freudiger .J,  Manshaei .M,  HubauxJ.-P., and   Parkes .D,  “On  non  cooperative location  privacy: A   game-  theoretic    analysis,”   in       Proc.  CCS,  pp. 324–337.

11.     Hassan    Artail,    Khaleel     Mershad,  and    Mario   Gerla    (2012), ”   We   can    deliver   messages     to    far  vehicles”,   IEEE    Trans..     Intelligent     Trans.          Pp 1-17.

12.     Ko .Y,  Sim .M, and  Nekovee .M, “ Wi-Fi    based    broadband   wireless  access   for Users   on   the road, ” BT Technol. J.,    vol. 24,   no. 2,    pp.   123–129.

13.     Leontiadis .  I.,   Marfia.  G,   Mack.D,   Pau  G.,   Mascolo. C,  and     Gerla .M,  “On  the  effectiveness     of   an   opportunistic     traffic    management   system   for  vehicula   networks,”  IEEE Trans.   Intell. Transp.  Syst.,  vol. 12,  no. 4   pp.1537–1548.

14.     Li .L  and  Sun .L, “Seer:   Trend- prediction-based geographic   messages   forwarding in  sparse  vehicular networks,” in   Proc. ICC,   pp. 1–5.

15.     Mehdi     Khabazian, Mustafa     Mehmet-   Ali  and   Sonia   Aïssa (2012),  “Performance  Modeling  of   Safety Messages  Broadcast   in  Vehicular  Ad Hoc Networks”, IEEE  Trans. Pp. 1-8.






Bahaaeldin Sadagah

Paper Title:

Remedial Measures against Combined Debris Flows and Rockfalls Hazards along Part of a Mountainous Road, Western Saudi Arabia

Abstract: Construction of the mountain roads in western Saudi Arabia is one of the most challenging missions. Many problems faced before, during and after construction of the roads. Inhomogeneous rock masses, structural settings, steep slopes, sharp cliffs and geomorphological constraints are the obvious obstacles to safe mountainous roads. Al-Hada mountain road is almost 22 km long subjected to frequent rockfalls, usually after rainfalls. A huge accumulation of debris formed due to slope failures and rockfalls through years, dropping from almost 100 m above the highway alignment. This accumulation started to move soon due to rainfall, stabilized by benches and shotcrete. The RocFall computer program utilized to analyze the event regarding modeling and mitigation. Study on the debris content properties performed. Parameters such as rock blocks size, initiation point, kinetic energy, and geomorphology are the major factors determining the destructive effect of the combined rockfall and debris flows events on the road. Debris flows barriers and rockfall meshes are the remedial measures recommended according to the site constraints and modeling process.

Al-Hada road, rockfalls, debris flows, rainfalls.


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2.        Y.E. Abou-Seadah, “Preliminary evaluation of the stability of Al-Hada rock slopes," Unpublished M.Sc. Thesis, Faculty of Earth Sciences, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, 1982, unpublished.

3.        B.H. Sadagah, “Study of the failures, rockfalls and debris flows occurred along Al-Kar/Al-Hada descent road,” 1213p, 2013, unpublished.

4.        B.H. Sadagah, M.S. Aazam, A. Al-Amri, O. Al-Hoseiny, and A. Al-Harbi, “Powerful rockfall incidents at Al-Hada descent and remedial measures,” in Slope Stability 2013, Proc. of The 2013 Intnl. Symp. on Slope Stability in Open Pit Mining and Civil Engineering, 25-27 Sept., 2013, Brisbane, Australia, 783-791pp.

5.        B.H. Sadagah, “Rockfall modeling analysis and mitigation at mountainous road, Saudi Arabia,” GeoShanghai 2014, 26-28, May, 2014, Shanghai, P.R.China, 2014.

6.        B.H. Sadagah, “Remedial measures and modeling of rockfall problems along part of a mountainous road, western Saudi Arabia,” International Journal of Innovative Science and Modern Engineering™ (IJISME), Vol. 2, Issue 6, pp: 23-29, 2014.

7.        B.H. Sadagah, “A vigorous debris flow incident at Al-Hada descent and remedial measures”. World Landslide Forum, 2-6 Jun., 2014, Beijing, P.R.China.

8.        B.H. Sadagah, “Back analysis of a rockfall event and remedial measures along part of a mountainous road, western Saudi Arabia” International Journal of Innovative Science and Modern Engineering™ (IJISME), Vol. 3, Issue 2, pp: 1-7, 2015.

9.        G.F. Brown, R.G. Bouge, and W.H. Maclean, “Geologic map of the Southern Hijaz Quadrangle, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia,” U.S. Geol. Survey, Misc. Geol. Map I-210 A, 1962.

10.     Z.T. Bieniawski, “Engineering rock mass classification”. John Wiley and Sons, New York, USA. 1989, 251p.

11.     D. Banks, “Rock mass ratings (RMRs) predicted from slope angles of natural rock outcrops,” Technical note. Intnl. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. 2005 (42): 440-449.

12.     C.M. Orr, “Assessment of rock slope stability using the rock mass rating (RMR) system,” Australia Inst. Min. Metall. Proc., 1992, 297(2):25–29.

13.     C.M. Orr, “Use of rock mass rating (RMR) system in assessing the stability of rock slopes,” in Milestones in rock engineering: the Bieniawski jubilee collection, 1966.

14.     O.M. Abdullatif, and D.M. Cruden, “The relationship between rock mass quality and ease of excavation,” Bull. Int. Assoc. Eng. Geol.; 1983, 28:183–187.

15.     Geological Society of London, “The description of rock masses for engineering purpose,” Geological Society, Engineering Group Working Party. Q. J. Eng. Geology, 1977, Vol. 10, pp. 335-389.

16.     B.H. Sadagah, and Y.E. Abou-Seadah, “The remedial measures on the rock slopes to prevent rockfalls and to protect the commuters along Al-Hada descent road,” King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, supported project No. 14-25, 2011, 626 p.

17.     E.T. Brown, “Rock characterization testing & monitoring. ISRM Suggested Methods”. Commission of testing methods, International Society for Rock Mechanics. Pergamon Press. 211p, 1981.

18.     Rocscience, “DIPS User’s manual,” Rocscience Inc., 2013.

19.     E. Hoek, “Practical rock engineering”, internet edition, 2007.

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21.     D.C Wyllie and C.W. Mah, “Rock slope engineering civil and mining” 4th ed... Taylor and Francis, 431p., 2005.

22.     Rocscience, “RocPlane v. 3 User’s guide,” 2014.

23.     Rocscience, “Swedge v. 6 User’s guide,” 2014.

24.     Rocscience, “RocTopple v.1 User’s guide,” 2014.

25.     B.H. Sadagah, “Rockfall Modeling Analysis and Mitigation at Mountainous Road, Saudi Arabia,” GeoShanghai 2014, 26-28 May, 2014, Shanghai, P.R.China.

26.     B.H. Sadagah, “Rockfall analysis, modeling and mitigation of a critical section along Al-Hada descent road, Saudi Arabia.” IAEG XII Congress, Torino, Italy, 15-19 Sept., 2014.

27.     B.H. Sadagah, “Back analysis of a rockfall event and remedial measures along part of a mountainous road, western Saudi Arabia. IJISME: vol. 3, Issue 2, pp. 1-7.

28.     Rocscience, “RocFall v. 6 User’s guide,” 2014.

29.     M. Jacob and O. Hunger “Debris-flow hazards and related phenomena” Springer, 739p, 2005.





S. Sudha, V. Kanniga

Paper Title:

Star-in-Coloring of Arbitrary Supersubdivision of Graphs and the Splitting Graphs

Abstract: In this paper, we have shown that the arbitrary supersubdivision of a path, a cycle, a fan graph, a wheel graph, a helm graph and a gear graph by a complete bi-partite graph  for any  admits star-in-coloring. In addition, we have proved the fan graph and the splitting graph of a path, a cycle and a fan graph also admit star-in-coloring. 2000 Mathematics Subject Classification: 05C15, 05C20.

Star-in-coloring, splitting graph, fan graph, wheel graph, helm graph, gear graph.


1.        G. Sethuraman, P. Selvaraju, “Gracefulness of arbitrary supersubdivision of graphs”, Indian J.Pure appl.Math.,Vol 32(7), 2001, PP 1059 - 1064.
2.        S. Sudha, V. Kanniga, “Graceful labeling of uniform supersubdivision of cycles by bipartite graphs”, 2015,(communicated for publication).

3.        S. Sudha, V. Kanniga, “Arbitrary supersubdivision of Helms, Centipedes and Ladder graphs are graceful”, Mathematical Sciences International Research Journal, Vol 1(3), 2012, pp 860 - 863.

4.        S. Sudha, V. Kanniga, “Graceful labeling on the combination of some graphs”, Mathematical Sciences International Research Journal, Vol 2(2), 2013, pp 630 - 633.

5.        E. Sampathkumar, and H. B. Walikar, “On Splitting Graph of a Graph”, J. Karnatak Univ. Sci., Vol 25(13), 1980, pp 13 - 16.

6.        S. Sudha, V. Kanniga, “Gracefulness of some new class of graphs”, Engineering Sciences International Research Journal, Vol 1(1), 2013, pp 81 - 83.

7.        B. Gru ̈nbaum, “Acyclic colorings of planar graphs”, Israel J.Math., Vol 14(3), 1973, pp 390 - 408.

8.        S. Sudha, V. Kanniga, “Star-in-coloring of Cycles, Generalized Petersen graphs and their middle graphs”, The Journal of Indian Academy of Mathematics, Vol 36(1), 2014, pp 13 - 27.

9.        S. Sudha, V. Kanniga, “Star-in-coloring of complete bi-partite graphs, wheel graphs and prism graphs”, International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology, Vol 2(2), 2014, pp 97 - 104.

10.     S. Sudha, V. Kanniga, “Star-in-coloring of some new class of graphs”, International Journal of Scientific and Innovative Mathematical Research, Vol 2(4),2014,  pp 352 - 360.

11.     K. J. Ma, C. J. Feng, “On the gracefulness of gear graphs”, Math. Practice Theory, 1984, pp 72 - 73.






Monther Bsoul, Khaldoun Bsoul, Samy M. Ghania

Paper Title:

Role of Productivity in Quality Management

Abstract: The aim of this paper is analyzing the issues of the productivity using quality management. It should be mentioned that operating companies have to meet the different needs of men. Satisfying this, it is possible only if it arises a number of measures called resources which can freely made. The state of resources and their execution express the strength or weakens of competitive enterprises.   Knowing the state of enterprise resources makes it is easy to track called circle of      “areas of strength and weakness of the company”. This paper introduces the role of productivity in quality managements in different typical companies in Poland. It presents the quality improvement percentage and its relation with the productivity.

Satisfying, arises, weakens, productivity.


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3.        Kolman - Quality Engineering - National Economic Publishing House, Warsaw 2013.

4.        K. Mokrosińska - A little about the philosophy of quality - Quality Problems - 9/11, ss.35,36.

5.        Wladyslaw Roman Pawlak - Quality management - training of managers, the Foundation Polish Productivity Center, Warsaw, 2007.

6.        Andrew Góralczyk - Singapore Productivity program in 2009, part II, Quality Problems 1/10, S.41.

7.        Wieslaw Załęski - Guide Promoter Productivity in the Enterprise, Volume 25, Publishing House of the Centre for the Advancement of Organizing, Bydgoszcz, 2011.

8.        Andrew Góralczyk - Singapore Productivity program in 2009, part I, Quality Problems 12/12, s.50.

9.        John Benk, series editor Adrian Buckley - Quality Management, Warsaw 2006.

10.     Hiroshi Ohone - Promoters productivity, training materials, Foundation Polish Productivity Center, Warsaw 2013.

11.     Lesław Wasilewski - Models Quality Strategy for industrial companies, Institute of Organization and Management in Industry ORGMASZ, Warsaw 2009.

12.     Quality and productivity management, productivity consultants materials developed by the International Labour Organization, in collaboration with the Asian Productivity Organization, Warsaw March 2007

13.     Hirosihi Ohone - Strategies for management restructuring, the Foundation Polish Productivity Center, Warsaw 2014.

14.     Andrew Góralczyk - Reliability total, part. Second, the quality problems 10/13, p.32.

15.     Andrew Góralczyk - Reliability total, part. I, issues of quality 9/13, p.35.

16.     I. Durlik - Engineering Management, AW Placet, Gdańsk, 2011.

17.     S. Chajtman - Productivity - efficiency - efficiency, systematics factors Authority 12/12.

18.     W. Grudzewski - Productivity improvement of basic direction of the Polish economy, the Authority 11/12.

19.     L. Mieszkowski - Productivity and Quality, PO 9/13.

20.     H. Onoue - Book promoter productivity, SRP, Warsaw 2013

21.     H. Onoue - Workshops promoters productivity, SRP, .2008

22.     A. Góralczyk - The practice of TQM as a culture, Quality Problems, 2007 S.41.

23.     A. Góralczyk - Leaders of productivity - a great success, serious tasks, problems Jakości2009, .37-38.

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Ch. V. N. Sanyasi Rao, Tiruveedula Gopi Krishna

Paper Title:

Oracle Internals Tips and Technical Trips

Abstract: The Study or knowledge of internal structures of Oracle is necessary for an advanced performance tuning and trouble-shooting. To understand Oracle Optimizes these internal structures are useful. Oracle uses hidden parameters also. It is advisable to know them but not to play with them. Understanding online backup functionality the knowledge of internals helps a lot. Oracle documentation on tuning the database, a good reading helps to Improve Database Performance. This paper describes oracle internals mainly into the following aspects such as parsing oracle statements, locks contention internals, cursor sharing internals, soring operations Internals and shared pool internals.

Oracle internals; parsing; lock contention; cursor sharing; shared pool.


1.        http://www.articles.freemegazone.com/oracle-sorting.php oracle-training.cc/oracle_tips_sort_operations.htm
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3.        http://www.oracle-training.cc/oracle_tips_sort_operations.htm.

4.        tech.e2sn.com/virtual.../systematic-oracle-sql-optimization-in-real-life






Muhammad Sadiq Sahari, Abu Khari A’ain, Ian A. Grout

Paper Title:

Scalable Antirandom Testing (SAT)

Abstract: Antirandom testing approach requires large input space and complex test vector generation algorithm when used on circuit under test (CUT) with large number of inputs. In this work, we proposed a novel and simple approach of Antirandom sequence generation by using the least significant bit (LSB) of the test vector as a reference to generate the next test vector. Fault simulations on ISCAS’85 benchmark circuits shown that a high fault coverage for combinational logic circuits has been obtained. Another attractive feature of the proposed technique is the scalable of the algorithm that can be generate test vectors in short time even for CUT with large number of inputs.

Keywords: Integrated Circuit (IC) Testing, Built-in self-test (BIST), Test Pattern Generation (TPG), Pseudorandom Testing and Antirandom Testing.


1.        Wu, S.H., Jandhyala, S., Malaiya, Y.K., and Jayasumana, A.P.: ‘Antirandom testing: a distance-based approach’, VLSI Design, 2008, 2008, (2), pp. 2
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3.        Mrozek, I., and Yarmolik, V.N.: ‘Iterative Antirandom Testing’, Journal of Electronic Testing, 2012, pp. 1-15

4.        Singh, K., Kumar, R., and Kaur, I.: ‘Effective Test Case Generation Using Antirandom Software Testing’, International Journal of Engineering Science, 2010, 2

5.        Tappenden, A.F., and Miller, J.: ‘A novel evolutionary approach for adaptive random testing’, Reliability, IEEE Transactions on, 2009, 58, (4), pp. 619-633

6.        Chen, T., Bai, A., Hajjar, A., Andrews, A.K.A., and Anderson, C.: ‘Fast anti-random (FAR) test generation to improve the quality of behavioral model verification’, Journal of Electronic Testing, 2002, 18, (6), pp. 583-594

7.        Zhou, Z.Q., Sinaga, A., and Susilo, W.: ‘On the fault-detection capabilities of adaptive random test case prioritization: Case studies with large test suites’, in Editor (Ed.)^(Eds.): ‘Book On the fault-detection capabilities of adaptive random test case prioritization: Case studies with large test suites’ (IEEE, 2012, edn.), pp. 55845593

8.        Yiunn, D.B.Y., Bin A'ain, A., and Ghee, J.: ‘Scalable test pattern generation (STPG)’, in Editor (Ed.)^(Eds.): ‘Book Scalable test pattern generation (STPG)’ (IEEE, 2010, edn.), pp. 433-435

9.        Shiyi, X., and Jianwen, C.: ‘Maximum distance testing’, in Editor (Ed.)^(Eds.): ‘Book Maximum distance testing’ (2002, edn.), pp. 15-20





Nguyen Minh Duc, Nguyen Tuan Linh, Nguyen Duc Thuan

Paper Title:

New Approach to Designing Reliable Circuit for Acquiring Impedance Cardiography Signal (ICG)

Abstract: Impedance Cardiography (ICG) is a non-invasive method which can continuously monitoring cardiac activities. By measuring the changes of thoracic impedance (∆Z) during a cardiac cycle, many Hemodynamic parameters can be calculated such as Stroke Volume (SV), Cardiac Output (CO), Total Fluid Content (TFC) and so on, that are impossibly derived using solely ECG. However, the accuracy of this method is still a problem. One of the major causes comes from the analog system that acquires and processes the input signals, in which ∆Z is too small compared to noises. Some common drawbacks were found in some ICG measurement devices, including non-optimal demodulation method, cut-off frequency being to low, DC noises and analog differentiation. Therefore, ICG signals often lose its higher frequency components, that are maybe related to a certain cardiac symptom. On this paper, we propose a new design that can ensure acquiring completely thoracic impedance signals (including the impedance change - ∆Z and the base impedance - Z_0), that has a bandwidth of being up to 50Hz, without distorting the signal. This new design was experimented with simulated signals to evaluate the system's accuracy and efficiency. Specifically, amplitude-modulated sine, containing both AC and DC components with various amplitudes corresponding with ∆Z and Z_0, were used in the first experiment. Then, simulated Electrocardiography (ECG) and Electromyography (EMG) were used for evaluating the capability of this new system when dealing with a small physiological signal. The frequency spectrums of the input and output signals were measured consecutively 20 times and compared to each other after each measurement. The positive results, which were expressed by average value and the corresponding standard deviation (SD) of Pearson correlation and a predefined parameter called Spectrum Amplitude Error (SAD), exhibited the high accuracy and reliability of this new system.

Impedance Cardiography (ICG), Impedances changes (∆Z), Base impedance (Z_0), simulated signals, demodulation, Biomedical toolkit.


1.        M.C.Ipate, A.A.Dobre, A.M.Morega (2012), "The stroke volume and the cardiac output by the impedance cardiography", U.P.C. Sci. Bull., Series C, Vol.74, Iss.3, pp. 193-201.
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3.        Gerard Cybulski (2011), Ambulatory Impedance Cardiography – The systems and their applications, Springer.

4.        Liang-Yu Shyu, Chia-Yin Chiang, Chun-Peng Liu, Wei-Chih Hu (2000), " Portable Impedance Cardiography System for Real-Time Noninvasive Cardiac Output Measurement", Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering, Vol. 20, Iss.4, pp. 193-202.

5.        Nguyen Minh Duc, Nguyen Thai Ha, Vu Duy Hai (2013); "Design of the circuit for acquiring and processing Impedance Cardiography signals", Journal of Science and Technology for technical universities (ISSN 0868 – 3980), No.97, pp. 57-62.

6.        Nguyen Minh Duc, Nguyen Thai Ha (2013); "Design of the continuous Cardiac Output measurement system using Impedance Cardiography and building the alternative current source applying for patient's thorax", Journal of Science and Technology for technical universities (ISSN 0868 – 3980), No.96, pp. 33-39.

7.        David Prutchi, Michael Norris 2005, Design and development of medical electronic instrumentation, Wiley – Interscience.

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Anthony Nkem Ede, Olatunbosu Adaramola, Oluwarotimi Micheal Olofinnade

Paper Title:

Modelling, Analysis and Design of a Multi-Storey Helipad-Car Park: a Proposal for Canaan Land

Abstract: The rapid growth of urbanization and the ever increasing population of urban centers in modern age of today, has brought about increase in the use of cars, roads and other transportation facilities. This singular factor has created constrains on traffic management system and parking of cars in most of these areas. That is why new innovations and technology need to be put in place to help address this issue and reduce some of the constrains on traffic management system of urban centers and also help improve their parking system. One of these innovations is the introduction of multi-storey car park. The multi-storey car park is one major innovation put in place to help with traffic management system of urban centers in most developed countries and introducing this kind of innovation into the developing countries such as Nigeria would help the traffic management system of major urban centers, bring less environmental hazards with the attendant social and economic gains for the society. That is why this research aims at the modelling, analysis and design  of a multi-storey car park which would improve the traffic management of a functional modern society like that of Canaan land. Autodesk Revit and Robot soft wares are adopted and the results obtained are promising and replicable.

Helipad Design, Modelling, Multi-Storey Car Park, Structural Analysis, Structural Design, Traffic Challenges, Urbanization.

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3.        A.N. Ede, Challenges Affecting the Development and Optimal Use of Tall Buildings in Nigeria, The International Journal Of Engineering And Science (IJES), 3(4), Pages 12-20, 2014.

4.        N. A Henderson, R. A  Johnson, & Wood, J. G. (2002). Enhancing the Whole Life Structural Performance of Multi-Storey Car Parks. London, Mott MacDonald Ltd.

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7.        W. Carl, H. Timothy, Parking Planning; Published by American Institute of Architects; 2nd Edition, (2006).

8.        A. N. Ede, P. F. Adepoju and P. O. Awoyera, Challenges of Car Pack Design in Nigeria, International Journal of Innovative Technology and Exploring Engineering, 4(10), 2015.

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17.     BS 6399-1: 1996: Loading for buildings – Part 1: Code of practice for dead and imposed loads. London: BSI, 1996.

18.     BS 6399-2: 1997: Loading for buildings – Part 2: Code of practice for wind loads. London: BSI, 1997.

19.     BS EN 1991-1-1: 2002. Eurocode 1: Actions on structures – Part 1-1: General actions – densities, self-weight, imposed loads for buildings. London: BSI, 2002.

20.     O. Adaramola, 2014, Modelling and Design of a Multi-Storey Car Park with Autodesk Robot: a Proposal for Canaan Land, Unpublished final year student project, Department of Civil Engineering, Covenant University, Ota, Nigeria.