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Volume-3 Issue-7

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Volume-3 Issue-7, June 2015, ISSN: 2319–6386 (Online)
Published By: Blue Eyes Intelligence Engineering & Sciences Publication Pvt. Ltd. 

Page No.



Sivarajeshwaran S, Ramya G, Priya G

Paper Title:

Developing Software Based Key logger and a Method to Protect from Unknown Key loggers

Abstract: Key loggers are hardware or software used to harvest confidential information. Keystroke logging also known as keylogging or keyboard capturing, that record the keys struck on the keyboard. The main aim of this project is to develop userspace software keylogger and a method to detect and close the unknown keylogger running in stealth mode. Software based keylogger is a set of computer program implanted on a machine to capture the user activity by logging keystrokes and delivering them to a third party though their email account and also save them as a file in a specified folder without knowing to the owner of the computer. Keyloggers are also used for legitimate purposes such as surveillance in company and parental monitoring infrastructures. Software based Anti keylogger are used to detect and close software in which keylogger running in stealth mode. It will be done by comparing the executable files of the running software.

Keylogger, software, Keystroke, running, project.

1.        T.Holz, M. Engelberth, and F. Freiling, “Learning More About the Underground Economy: A Case-Study of Keyloggers and Proc. 14th European Symp. Research in Computer 2009.
2.        San Jose Mercury News, “Kinkois Spyware Case Highlights Risk of Public Internet Terminals,” http://www.siliconvalley.com/mld/siliconvalley/news/6359407.htm, 2012.

3.        N. Strahija, “Student Charged After College Computer Hacked,” http://www.xatrix.org/article2641.html .

4.        Martin vuagnoux and sylvainpasini. Compromising electromagnetic emanations of wired and wireless keyboards, in proceeding of the 18 conference on USENIX security symposium, USENIX Association. USA 2009.

5.        J.Han, J.Kwon and H.Lee, "Honeyid: Unveiling Hidden Spywares by Generating Bogus Events" 2008.

6.        Y.Al-Hammadi and U.Aickelin, "Detecting Bots Based on Keylogging Activities", 2008

7.        M.Aslam, R.Idrees, M.Baig and M.Arshad, " the Software Key Loggers", 2004

8.        S.Ortolani, C.Giuffrida and B.Crispo, "Klimax: Profiling Memory Write Patterns to Detect Keystroke

9.        Moser, C. Kruegel, and E. Kirda, “Exp for Malware Analysis,” Proc. IEEE 28th Symp. Security and Privacy, pp. 231-245, May 2007.






Avni Singh Chauhan, Shreedhar Agarwal

Paper Title:

A Review on Steganographic Techniques

Abstract: Steganography is the art of coveting data through which the sensitive information can be secured by covering it through a compatible media. Steganegraphy focuses on the existence of the cover media through which the data can't be accessed illegitimately. The paper provides a spectral view on the basic implementation and the various steganographic techniques. Here we profoundly deal with transmission techniques of tender data so as to make the system more reliable and robust.

Steganograpgy, LSB, DCT, DWT, CNF, GNF, PSNR, Pseudorandom sequence.

1.        R.F. Olanrewaju, Othman Khalifa and Husna binti Abdul Rahman "Increasing the Hiding Capacity of Low-Bit Encoding Audio.Steganography Using a Novel Embedding Technique",World Applied Sciences Journal 21 (Mathematical Applications in Engineering. http://www.idosi.org/wasj/WASJ21(mae)13/14.pdf
2.        J.R. Krenn January 2004,"Steganography and Steganalysis" http://www.krenn.nl/univ/cry/steg/article.pdf.

3.        Anjali A. Shejul, Prof. U. L. Kulkarni, “A DWT based Approach for Steganography using Biometric”, International Conference On Data 
Storage and Data Engineering, IEEE, pp. 39-43, 2010.
4.        Ms. G. S. Sravanthi, Mrs. B. Sunitha Devi and S. M. Riyazoddin & M.Janga Reddy,"A Spatial Domain Image Steganography Technique 
Based on Plane Bit Substitution Method",Global Journal of Computer Science and Technology Gaphics & Vision International Researc Journal Publisher: Global Journals Inc. (USA) https://globaljournals.org/GJCST_Volume12/1-A-Spatial-Domain-Image-Steganography.pdf
5.        A.Antony Judice,Dhivya Shamini.P,Divya Sree.D.J,"Image High Capacity Steganographic Methods by Modified OPA Algorithm and 
Haar Wavelet Transform",IJCSNS International Journal of Computer Science and Network Security, VOL.14 No.3, March 2014 .
6.        Rakhi1, Suresh Gawande"A REVIEW ON STEGANOGRAPHY METHODS",International Journal of Advanced Research in Electrical, 
Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering Vol. 2, Issue 10, October 2013.
7.        A.Nag!, S. Biswas*, D. Sarkar*, P.P. Sarkar,"A novel technique for image steganography based on Block-DCT and Huffman 
Encoding",International Journal of Computer Science and Information Technology, Volume 2, Number 3, June 2010. http://www.airccse.org/journal/jcsit/0203csit8.pdf
8.        Dr Mahesh Kumar and Mukesh Yadav and,"Image Steganography Using Frequency Domain",INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF 
SCIENTIFIC & TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH VOLUME 3, ISSUE 9, EPTEMBER 2014. http://www.ijstr.org/final-print/sep2014/ImageSteganography-Using-Frequency-Domain.pdf
9.        Monika Agarwal,Department of Computer Science and Engineering,"TEXT STEGANOGRAPHIC APPROACHES: A COMPARISON ",International Journal of Network Security & Its Applications (IJNSA), Vol.5, No.1, January 2013. http://www.airccse.org/journal/nsa/0113nsa07.pdf

10.     Soumyendu Das ,Information Consultant,"Steganography and steganographic analysis:Different approach"






Kavitha H, H. S. Sridhar

Paper Title:

Comparative Analysis of Trans-Z-Source Inverter and Cascaded Multicell Trans-Z-Source Inverter

Abstract: The three phase inverters produce three phase waveform always less than the input DC voltage. To get more output from the inverter. Z-source that is combination of inductor and capacitors are used in the input side, but the boost operation is not so effective and also inverters with high-output voltage gain usually face the problem of high-input current flowing through their components. The problem might further be exaggerated if the inverters use high-frequency magnetic devices like transformers or coupled inductors. Leakage inductances of these devices must strictly be small to prevent over voltages caused by switching of their winding currents. To avoid these related problems, cascaded trans-Z-source inverters are proposed. They use multiple magnetic cells in an alternately cascading pattern rather than a single magnetic cell with large turn’s ratio. In this paper comparison of cascaded multicell Trans Z-source inverter and normal trans-z-source inverter is made for increasing the boost ratio. Analysis of these inverters is made using SIMULINK software and its performance has been analyzed.

Cascaded inverters transformers, Z-source inverters, Trans-z-source inverters.

1.        J. Kikuchi and T. A. Lipo, “Three phase PWM boost-buck rectifiers with power regenerating capability,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 38, no. 5, pp. 1361–1369, Sep/Oct. 2002.
2.        G. Moschopoulos and Y. Zheng, “Buck-boost type ac-dc single-stage converters,” in Proc.

3.        IEEE Int. Symp. Ind. Electron, Jul. 2006, pp. 1123– 1128.

4.        F. Z. Peng, “Z-source inverter,” IEEE Trans. Ind.Appl., vol. 39, no. 2,pp. 504–510, Mar./Apr. 2003.

5.        A literature survey on z-source inverter 1.Vrushali Suresh Neve, 2.P.H. Zope* and 3.S.R. Suralkar 1.Research Scholar, 2.Professor, 3.Professor &HOD, 1,2,3 Department of Electronics & TeleCommunication Engineering, SSBT’s College of Engineering & Technology, Jalgaon, Maharashtra, INDIA. *Corresponding Author : phzope@gmail.com

6.        Y. Tang, S. Xie, C. Zhang and Z. Xu, “Improved Z-source inverter with reduced Z-source capacitor voltage stress and soft-start 
capability”, IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 24.
7.        W. Qian, F. Z. Peng, and H. Cha, “Trans-Z-source inverters,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 26, no. 12, pp. 3453–3463, Dec. 2011. pp. 409-415, Feb. 2009.

8.        Multi-cell Trans-z-source Inverters IEEE PEDS 2011, Singapore, 5 – 8 December 2011 Ding Li, Student Member, IEEE, Poh Chiang Loh, Member, IEEE, Miao Zhu, Member, IEEE, Feng Gao,Member, IEEE, and Frede Blaabjerg, Fellow, IEEE. Cascaded multicell trans-z-source inverter Ding Li, Student Member, IEEE, Poh Chiang Loh, Senior Member, IEEE, Miao Zhu, Senior Member, IEEE, Feng Gao, Senior Member, IEEE, and Frede Blaabjerg, Fellow IEEE.






Daniel C. Emeniru, Okechukwu D. Onukwuli, Pere-ere Douye Wodu, Livinus A. Obasi

Paper Title:

Optimizing The Adsorption of Methylene Blue Dye onto Raw and Modified Ekowe Clay using RSM

Abstract: This study explicates the optimum condition for effective and efficient uptake of cationic dye onto raw and modified (acid activated and calcined) Ekowe clay. The clay modification spanned 750oC calcination of RS to produced RCS and 0.5MH2SO4  activation of RS then 750oC calcination toproduce ACS. The pH, acidity, CEC, PZC, surface area and filtration rate opened the adsorptive characteristics of the clay samples. Factors’ combinations of the RSM-CCRD (Central composite rotatable design of Response Surface Methodology) were applied in the batch adsorption experiments for statistical evaluation and Optimization of the Methylene Blue (MB) uptake. Calcination incurred structural and morphological change enhancing porosity and total surface area of the clay. The RSM showed; the correlation of MB uptake and studied variables fitted quadratic model, showing uptake variation with time, pH, dye concentration, clay amount and temperature. The analysis of variance exposed that all main factors influenced MB uptake. The effective and material economic optimum result: 66.92%, 62.79% and 53.53% MB uptake for ACS, RCS and RS respectively at conditions of 47min, solution pH-3, 20mg/L dye concentration, 0.35gclay and 25oC showed that calcination of raw and activated Ekowe clay enhances its optimum adsorptive capacity for MB dye uptake.

Activation, Calcination, Adsorption factors, RSM, Quadratic model, Statistical Analisis, ANOVA, 


1.        Aivalioti, M., Vamvasakis, I. &Gidarakos, E. (2010).BTEX and MTBE adsorption onto raw and thermally modified diatomite.Journal of Hazardous Materials, 178, 136–143.
2.        Al-Degs, Y., Khraisheh, M. A. M. &Tutunji, M. F. (2001). Sorption of lead ions on diatomite and manganese oxides modified diatomite. 
Water Resources, 35(15), 3724–3728.
3.        Amit Choudhury (2009, June 6). ANOVA. Retrieved Dec 04, 2013 from Explorable.com: http://explorable.com/anova. http://explorable.com/statistical-variance.

4.        ALzaydien, A. S. (2009). Adsorption of Methylene Blue from Aqueous Solution onto a Low-Cost Natural Jordanian Tripoli. American Journal of Environmental Sciences, 5(3), 197-208. ISSN 1553-345X

5.        Bhattacharyya, K. G., & Gupta, S. S. (2006). Adsorption of Chromium (VI) from Water by Clays. Industrial Engineering Chemistry Research, 45, 7232-7240. DOI:10.1021/ie060586j CCC

6.        Bhattacharyya, K. G.,& Gupta, S. S. (2009). Adsorptive Accumulation of Cd(II), Co(II), Cu(II), Pb(II) and Ni(II) ions from water onto Kaolinite: Influence of acid activation.Adsorption Science &Technology, 27(1), 47-68.

7.        Chatterjee, S., Lee, D. S., Lee, M. W., & Woo, S. H. (2009). Enhanced adsorption of congo red from aqueous solutions by chitosan hydrogel beads impregnated with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide. Bioresource Technology, 100, 2803 – 2809. doi:10.1016/j.biortech.2008.12.035. Accessible: www.elsevier.com/locate/

8.        Carley, K. M., Kamneva, N. Y., & Reminga, J. (2004). CASOS Technical Report on Response Surface Methodology: prepared for 
CASOS - Center for Computational Analysis of Social and Organizational Systems, ISRI - Institute for Software Research International, School of Computer Science, Carnegie Mellon University.
9.        Chang, H., Su, C., Lo, C. H., Chen, L. C., Tsung, T. T., &Jwo, C. S. (2004).Photodecomposition and Surface Adsorption of Methylene 
Blue on TiO2Nanofluid Prepared by ASNSS.Materials Transactions, 45(12), 3334 – 3337.
10.     Design Expert, (2000). Stat-Ease, Design Expert (version 6.0.5) (PC application software).User’s Manual and Software. Stat-Ease Inc. 
Minneapolis, MN.
11.     Djamila, H. & Zoubida, B. (2007). Lead (II) adsorption on bentonite. RécentsProgrés en Génié des Procédés, 1-11.94 G P E. ISBN 2- 
910239-68-3, Ed. SFGP, Paris, France.
12.     Fazeli, F., Tavanai, H., Hamadani, A. Z. (2012). Application of Taguchi and full factorial experimental design to model the color 
yield of cotton fabric dyed with six selected direct dyes. Journal of Engineered fibers and fibrics, 7(3), 34-42.www.jeffjournal.org.
13.     Hefne, J. A., Mekhemer, W. K., Alandis, N.M., Aldaye, O.A. & Aljvay, T. (2008). Kinetic and thermodynamic study of the adsorption 
of Pb (II) from aqueous solution to the natural and treated bentonite.International Journal of Physical Science, 3(11), 281-288 http://mineral.galleries.com/minerals/silicate/clays.htm
14.     Inglezakis V. J., Marinos A., Stylianou, D, G., &Loizidou, M. D. (2007). Removal of Pb(II) from aqueous solutions by using clinoptilolite and bentonite as adsorbents. Desalination, 210, 248-256.

15.     Khuri, A. I., &Mukhopadhyay, S. (2010). Response surface methodology. Advanced Review: WIREs Computational Statistics, Vol. 2 (pp. 128 – 149). John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

16.     Khraisheh, M. A. M., Al-degs, Y. S. & Mcminn, W. A. M. (2004).Remediation of wastewater containing heavy metals using raw and modified diatomite.Chemical Engineering Journal, 99, 177 – 184. doi:10.1016/j.cej.2003.11.029

17.     Ma, C. &Eggleton, R. A. (1999).Cation Exchange Capacity of Kaolinite.Clays and Clay Minerals, 47(2), 174 - 180.

18.     Montgomery, D. C. (2000). Chapter 3: Response surface methodology. In: Design and analysis of experiments (pp. 15 – 29). New Jersey: John Wiely& Sons Inc.

19.     Montgomery, D. C. (2002).Teaching Experimental Design to 
Engineers: Some experiences and advice. USA: ICOTS6, Arizona State University.
20.     Njoku, V. O., Oguzie, E. E., Obi, C., Bello, O. S. & Ayuk, A. A. (2011). Adsorption of Cu(II) and Pb(II) from Aqueous solutions onto a Nigerian natural Clay. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 5 (5), 346-353.

21.     Narayana S. K. V, King, P., Gopinadh, R., & Sreelakshmi, V. (2011). Response surface optimization of dye removal by using waste prawn shells. International Journal of Chemical Sciences and Applications, 2(3), 186-193. ISSN 0976-2590. http://www.bipublication.com

22.     Osmanlioglu, A. E., (2007). Natural diatomite process for removal of radioactivity from liquid waste, Applied Radiation Isotopes,65, 17–20.

23.     Ramamurthi, V., Priya, P. G., Saranya, S. &Basha, C. A. (2009).Recovery of Nickel (II) Ions from Electroplating Rinse Water using Hectorite Clay.Modern Applied Science,3(9), 37-51. Accessible at www.ccsenet.org/journal.html

24.     Response surface methodology.n.d. In Wikipedia. Retrieved 26 February, 2014 by 7:11pm.

25.     Shawabkeh, R. A. & Tununji, M. F. (2003). Experimental study and modeling of basic dye sorption by diatomaceous clay.Applied Clay Science, 24, 111–120.

26.     Tschapek, M., Tcheichvilit, L., &Wasowski, C. (1974). The Point of Zero Charge (PZC) of Kaolinite and 8io2+a1203 mixtures. Clay Minerals, 10, 219 -229.

27.     Tan, I. A. W., Ahmad, A. L., & Hameed, B. H. (2008). Preparation of activated carbon from coconut husk: Optimization study on removal of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol using response surface methodology. Journal of Hazardous Materials 153, 709 –717.

28.     Talaat, H. A., El Defrawy, N. M., Abulnour, A. G., Hani, H. A. & Tawfik, A. (2011). Evaluation of Heavy Metals removal using some Egyptian clays.International Conference of Environmental Science and Technology, Vol.6, 2.

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31.     Zangench, N., Azizian, A., Lye, L. & Popescu, R. (2002).Application of response surface methodology in numerical geotechnical 
analysis.55th Canadian Society for Geotechnical Conference, Hamilton, Ontario.






Shashank Karne, S. M. Bapat

Paper Title:

Finite Element Analysis and Optimization of Pressure Line Filter of 250bar

Abstract: This paper deals with the FEA implementation for analysis and optimization of pressure line filter for 250bar. The main aim is to reduce the cost of the products without compromising on the quality of the output. Using the optimum resources possible in designing the hydraulic products can effect this reduction in the cost of the hydraulic product. One way of doing it will be the optimizing the volume of material utilized for building the structure. An attempt has been made in this direction to reduce the volume of material. So here we consider an industrial application project consisting of mass minimization of a pressure line filter. This filter has to compensate the forces acting on the body and has to fulfill certain critical constraints. ANSYS has been used for this analysis which uses finite element method for solution. The methodology followed in this work is comparison of stresses induced in the filter body used for construction of body of the pressure line filter. These stresses are compared to yield stress and considering minimum factor of safety in range of 2 to 3.

Keywords: ANSYS, FEA, optimization, design, filter.

1.        Finite Element Analysis of Pressure Vessels David Heckman, University of California, Davis Mentor: Gene Massion, Mark Greise Summer 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New Jersey. ISBN 0-471-24410-4.

2.        International Journal of Advanced Research In Mechanical And Production Engineering And Development Volume: 1 Issue: 2 08-Apr-2014, ISSN_NO: 2320-7256
3.        Indian Journal of Science And Technology, Vol 7(4), 447–451, April 2014

4.        Hydraulics Filtration Product Guide- Donaldson

5.        Fluid Mechanics & Hydraulic Machines – Domkundwar.

6.        Reddy, J.N. (2005). An Introduction to the Finite Element Method (Third Ed.). McGraw-Hill. ISBN 9780071267618

7.        A text book of Machine Design by R.S.Khurmi , J.K.Gupta






Emsaieb Geepalla, Nassir Abuhamoud

Paper Title:

Using Spatio-Temporal Role Based Access Control for Physical Access Control Specification: Towards Effective Cyber-Physical Systems

Abstract: Spatio-Temporal Role-based access control (STRBAC) has been acknowledged as an effective mechanism for specifying access control policies for cyber systems. However, it is not yet clear how a STR- BAC model can be used for specifying access control policies for physical systems. In this paper, we propose a Spatio-Temporal Role Based Access Control (STRBAC) system for modeling the physical access control specification. However, any comprehensive access control model such as STRBAC requires verification mechanisms to ensure the consistency of access control specification. As a result, this paper makes the use of Alloy to perform the analysis of the STRBAC specification. To achieve this, the paper make the use of AC2Alloy to automate the transformation between STRBAC specification and Alloy. With the help of an example, this paper shows how the STRBAC model is transformed into Alloy using our AC2Alloy, and then the produced Alloy model will be analyzed using Alloy Analyzer to detect inconsistencies in the STRBAC specification.

Spatio-temporal role based access control, alloy, ac2alloy, physical system.


1.        Gerd Behrmann, Alexandre David, Kim Guldstrand Larsen, John Hakansson, Paul Petterson, Wang Yi, and Martijn Hendriks. UPPAAL 4.0. In Proceedings of the 3rd international conference on the Quantitative Evaluation of Systems, pages 125126, Riverside, California, USA, September 2006.
2.        Indrakshi Ray and Manachai Toahchoodee. A Spatio-Temporal Access Control Model Supporting Delegation for Pervasive Computing Applications. In Proceed- ings of the 5th International Conference on Trust, Privacy and Security in Digital Business, pages 48.58, Turin, Italy, September 2008.

3.        Arjmand Samuel, Arif Ghafoor, and Elisa Bertino. A Framework for Specification and Verification of Generalized Spatio-Temporal Role Based Access Control Model. Technical report, Purdue University, 
February 2007. CERIAS TR 2007-08.
4.        Manachai Toahchoodee and Indrakshi Ray. On the Formal Analysis of a Spatio- Temporal Role-Based Access Control Model. In Proceedings of the 22nd Annual IFIP WG 11.3 Working Conference on Data and Applications Security, pages 17.32, London, U.K., July 2008.

5.        Jackson.Daniel (2006), Software Abstractions Logic, Language, and Analysis, Cam- bridge: The Mit Press.

6.        Gerd Behrmann, Alexandre David, and Kim Guldstrand Larsen. A Tutorial on Uppaal. In 4th International School on FormalMethods for the Design of Computer, Communication and Software Systems, pages 200236, Bertinoro, Italy, September 2004.

7.        Liang Chen and Jason Crampton. On Spatio-Temporal Constraints and Inheritance in Role-Based Access Control. In Proceedings of the 2008 ACM Symposium on Information, Computer and Communications Security, pages 205.216, Tokyo, Japan, March 2008.

8.        Hsing-Chung Chen, Shiuh-Jeng Wang, Jyh-Horng Wen, Yung-Fa Huang, Chung- Wei Chen: A Generalized Temporal and Spatial 
Role-Based Access Control Model. JNW 5(8): 912-920 (2010)
9.        Indrakshi Ray and Manachai Toahchoodee. A Spatio-temporal Role-Based Access Control Model. In Proceedings of the 21st Annual 
IFIPWG11.3Working Conference on Data and Applications Security, pages 211.226, Redondo Beach, CA, July 2007.
10.     Basit Shafiq, James B. D. Joshi, and Arif Ghafoor. Petri-net model for verification of RBAC Policies. Technical report, Purdue University, 2002.

11.     SamratMondal,ShamikSural,andVijayalakshmiAtluri.TowardsFormal Security Analysis of GTRBAC using Timed Automata. In Proceedings of the 14th ACM Symposium on Access control Models and Technologies, pages 3342, Stresa, Italy, June 2009.






M. Anbarasu, R. Padmavijayan

Paper Title:

Numerical Investigation on the Interaction of Local and Global Buckling in Cold Formed Steel Lipped Channel Columns

Abstract: This paper reports a numerical investigation concerning the post-buckling behaviour of cold-formed steel lipped channel columns under axial compression affected by the interaction of local and global buckling. Three types of lipped channel cross section profile have been chosen for the study, using CUFSM software by trial and error method to obtain local/global interaction. A non-linear finite element model is developed and verified against the experimental data available in literature on cold-formed steel lipped channel columns. Geometric and material non-linearities are included in the finite element model. Static buckling analysis is carried out and buckling modes such as local and distortional are extracted to incorporate the initial imperfections. After the verification of the finite element model extensive parametric study have been carried out by varying the length and thickness. The finite Element Software ABAQUS is used for the study. The column strengths predicted by the finite element analysis are compared with the design column strengths predicted by DSM - AS100:2007, AS/NZ: 4600- 2005. Based on this study the influence of local/global interaction on ultimate strength are discussed and presented.

Columns, Buckling, Local/Global Interaction, Axial compression member etc.


1.        Hancock GJ. Distortional buckling of steel storage rack columns, J Struct Engng, 111(12) (1985) 2770-2783.
2.        Lau SCW, Hancock GJ. Distortional buckling formulas for channel column, Journal of structural Engineering, 113(5)(1987) 1063-78 .

3.        Lau SCW, Hancock GJ. Inelastic buckling of channel columns in the distortional model, Thin walled structures, 29(1990):59-84.

4.        Kwon YB, Hancock GJ, Tests of cold formed channel with local and distortional buckling, Journal of Structural Engineering ASCE, 117 
(1992) 1786-1803.
5.        Young, B., and Rasmussen, K. J. R. Design of lipped channel columns. Journal of Structural Engineering, 124(2) (1998), 140–148.

6.        Ben Young , Jintang Yan. Channel Columns Undergoing Local, Distortional, and Overall Buckling, Journal of Structural Engineering, 
732 (2002) 728-736.
7.        Jintang Yan, Ben Young. Column Tests of Cold-Formed Steel Channels with Complex Stiffeners, Journal of Structural Engineering, 
1756 (2002) 737-745.
8.        Ben Young, Hancock GJ. Compression Tests of Channels with Inclined Simple Edge Stiffeners, Journal of Structural Engineering, 
1403 (2003) 1403-1411.
9.        Narayanan S, Mahendran Mahen. Ultimate Capacity of Innovative Cold-formed Steel Columns, Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 59(4)(2003) 489-508.

10.     Ben Young, Ehab Ellobody. Buckling Analysis of Cold-Formed Steel Lipped Angle Columns, Journal of Structural Engineering, 1570(2005) 1570-1579.

11.     Schafer BW. The Direct Strength Method of Cold-Formed Steel member design, Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 64(2008) 
12.     Yap DCY. Hancock GJ, Experimental Study of Complex High-Strength Cold-Formed Cross-Shaped Steel Section, Journal of 
Structural Engineering, 1322(2008) 1322-1333.
13.     Kwon et. Al, Compression tests of high strength cold-formed steel channels with buckling interaction, Journal of Constructional Steel 
Research, 65(2009) 278-289.
14.     Anil Kumar MV, Kalyanaraman V. Evaluation of Direct Strength Method for CFS Compression Members without Stiffeners, Journal of 
Structural Engineering, (2010) 879-885.
15.     AS/NZS 4600:2005, Australian / New Zealand Standard – Cold Formed Steel Structures.

16.     AISI-S100:2007, North American Specification for the Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural members Specifications.

17.     Young, B., and Yan, J. Finite element analysis and design of fixed-ended plain channel columns. Finite Elem. Anal. Design, 38(6) (2002), 549–566.






Babita Doda, Priya Dingria, Rohini Temkar

Paper Title:

Automated Kiosk for Vending Tickets and Refreshments at Multiplexes

Abstract: In this research paper the proposed concept is to replace the manual work in traditional Ticket issuing system and serpentine queues at food counters into an Automated Vending Machine. A ticket machine, also known as a Ticket Vending Machine (TVM), is a vending machine that produces tickets for multiplexes. The typical transaction consists of a user using the display interface to select the type and quantity of tickets and refreshments which include snacks and beverages, and then choosing a payment method which can be cash, credit/debit card. The ticket/tickets are printed and dispensed to the user and refreshments will be dispensed at the outlet conveyor. In order to reduce serpentine queues and mesh at ticket counters, automated Ticket Vending Machine can be used which provides ease and convenience for the customers. Customers with lack of technical knowledge need not worry while using vending machines because the GUI is user friendly and more over the customer can choose language of their choice for ease.

Ticket Vending Machine, outlet conveyor, Automated Kiosk, ecard.


1.        “Today and Tomorrow of Vending Machine and its Services in Japan”Toshio Yokouchi DIRECTFORCE Association, Japan
2.        “Design and Implementation of an automatic Beverages Vending Machine and its performance evaluation using Xilinx ISE and 
Cadence” V.V.S.Vijay krishna, A. Monisha, Sk.Sadulla, J. Prathiba #School of electronics, Vignan Universityormance evaluation using Xilinx ISE and Cadence
3.        The wikipedia website. [Online]. Available:-
4.        The IEEE website. [Online]. Available: http://www.ieee.org/





Yasen S. Kalinin, Edy K. Velikov, Valentina I. Markova

Paper Title:

Design of Indoor Environment Monitoring System Using Arduino

Abstract: This paper presents the development of a flexible environmental monitoring system that allows the monitoring of parameters in the workplace, required for optimal performance. Several sensors and three modules, with different functionalities, are used to complete the system.

Arduino, air quality, indoor monitoring.


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Vivek Kumar Malik, Amit Kumar Garg

Paper Title:

Simulation Analysis of Four Wave Mixing Effect in WDM Optical System

Abstract: The nonlinear effect degrades the system performance. Because nonlinear effects tend to manifest themselves when optical power is very high, they become important in WDM. Four-wave mixing (FWM) is one of the dominating degradation effects in wavelength divisionmultiplexing (WDM) systems with dense channel spacing and low chromatic dispersion on the fiber. Four wave mixing (FWM) is a parametric process in which different frequencies interact and by frequency mixing generate new spectral components. FWM can have important deleterious effects in optical fiber communications, particularly in the context of wavelength division multiplexing where it can cause cross-talk between different wavelength channels, and /or an imbalance of channel powers. The paper presents the design and performance analysis of four-wave mixing effect on the basis of output spectrums, eye diagrams, BER, eye opening and Q-factor for different values of channel spacing.

Channel spacing, Eye diagram, FWM, nonlinear effects, WDM.


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