Abstract: This paper attempts to describe how SONET/SDH works, down to the octet level. The SONET/SDH development for the current technology has been discussed and analyzed for better communication and improvement is SONET/SDH Technology. The STS-1 frame, Concatenation, VT’s etc. Architectures will be discussed, analyzed and the ways that how we can implement by means of the FPGA and ARM-11 core will be formulated and reviewed. When the SONET/SDH comes in market and today’s Telecommunication market has lots of differences. The differences are based on the technology, new ideas, Implementation algorithm, computing architectures etc. are evolutionary enhanced. What is the impact of technology on the SONET and what more we can implement to enhance the SONET/SDH architecture has been discussed in this paper.
Keywords: SONET/SDH, STS, Optical carrier, FPGA for SONET, ARM for SONET.
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Abstract: Given a geographic question that's composed of question keywords and a location, a geographic programmed retrieves documents that area unit the foremost textually and spatially relevant to the question keywords and therefore the location, severally, and ranks the retrieved documents consistent with their joint matter and spacial relevances to the question. the shortage of Associate in Nursing economical index that may at the same time handle each the matter and spacial aspects of the documents makes existing geographic search engines inefficient in respondent geographic queries. during this paper, we have a tendency to propose Associate in Nursing economical index, referred to as IR-tree, that in conjunction with a top-k document search algorithm facilitates four major tasks in document searches, namely, 1) spacial filtering, 2) matter filtering, 3) connexion computation, and 4) document ranking in an exceedingly absolutely integrated manner. Additionally, IR-tree permits searches to adopt totally different weights on matter and spacial connexion of documents at the runtime and therefore caters for a good kind of applications. a group of comprehensive experiments over a good vary of eventualities has been conducted and therefore the experiment results demonstrate that IR-tree outperforms the state-of-the art approaches for geographic document searches
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