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Volume-3 Issue-2

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Volume-3 Issue-2, January 2015, ISSN: 2319–6386 (Online)
Published By: Blue Eyes Intelligence Engineering & Sciences Publication Pvt. Ltd. 

Page No.



Bahaaeldin Sadagah

Paper Title:

Back Analysis of a Rockfall Event and Remedial Measures along Part of a Mountainous Road, Western Saudi Arabia

Abstract: Construction of the mountain roads in Saudi Arabia is one of the most difficult tasks. Many problems faced before, during and after construction of the roads. Inhomogeneous rock masses, structural settings, steep slopes, sharp cliffs and geomorphological constraints are the obvious obstacles to safe mountainous roads. Al-Hada mountain road is almost 22 km long shows many incidents of rockfalls. Rainfall took place day before and a week before rockfall. This cause a rockfall of few large blocks to take place, hit a car and break a light lamp. The height of the flying rock is about 12 m above the road level. The RocFall computer program utilized to analyze the event regarding modeling and mitigation. The necessary required rock mass parameters fed to the program. Parameters such as rock blocks size, initiation point, geomorphology and end point are the major factors determining the destructive effect of the rockfall event on the road. Remedial measures recommended according to the modeling process.

Al-Hada road, rockfalls, rainfalls, rock slopes.


1.        F. Marzouki, “Petrogenesis of Al-Hada plutonic rocks, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia,” Ph.D. Thesis. University of Western Ontario, London, 1977, unpublished.
2.        Y.E. Abou-Seadah, “Preliminary evaluation of the stability of Al-Hada rock slopes," Unpublished M.Sc. Thesis, Faculty of Earth Sciences, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, 1982, unpublished.

3.        B.H. Sadagah, “Study of the failures, rockfalls and debris flows occurred along Al-Kar/Al-Hada descent road,” 1213p, unpublished.

4.        B.H. Sadagah, M.S. Aazam, A. Al-Amri, O. Al-Hoseiny, and A. Al-Harbi, “Powerful rockfall incidents at Al-Hada descent and remedial measures,” in Slope Stability 2013, Proc. of The 2013 Intnl. Symp. on Slope Stability in Open Pit Mining and Civil Engineering, 25-27 Sept., 2013, Brisbane, Australia, 783-791pp.

5.        B.H. Sadagah, “Rockfall modeling analysis and mitigation at mountainous road, Saudi Arabia,” GeoShanghai 2014, 26-28, May, 2014, Shanghai, P.R.China, 2014.

6.        B.H. Sadagah, “Remedial measures and modeling of rockfall problems along part of a mountainous road, western Saudi Arabia,” International Journal of Innovative Science and Modern Engineering™ (IJISME), Vol. 2, Issue 6, pp: 23-29, 2014.

7.        B.H. Sadagah, “A vigorous debris flow incident at Al-Hada descent and remedial measures”. World Landslide Forum, 2-6 Jun., 2014, Beijing, P.R.China.

8.        G.F. Brown, R.G. Bouge, and W.H. Maclean, “Geologic map of the Southern Hijaz Quadrangle, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia,” U.S. Geol. Survey, Misc. Geol. Map I-210 A, 1962.

9.        Z.T. Bieniawski, “Engineering rock mass classification”. John Wiley and Sons, New York, USA. 1989, 251p.

10.     D. Banks, “Rock mass ratings (RMRs) predicted from slope angles of natural rock outcrops,” Technical note. Intnl. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. 2005 (42): 440-449.

11.     C.M. Orr, “Assessment of rock slope stability using the rock mass rating (RMR) system,” Australia Inst. Min. Metall. Proc., 1992, 297(2):25–29.

12.     C.M. Orr, “Use of rock mass rating (RMR) system in assessing the stability of rock slopes,” in Milestones in rock engineering: the Bieniawski jubilee collection, 1966.

13.     O.M. Abdullatif, and D.M. Cruden, “The relationship between rock mass quality and ease of excavation,” Bull. Int. Assoc. Eng. Geol.; 1983, 28:183–187.

14.     Geological Society of London, “The description of rock masses for engineering purpose,” Geological Society, Engineering Group Working Party. Q. J. Eng. Geology, 1977, Vol. 10, pp. 335-389.

15.     B.H. Sadagah, and Y.E. Abou-Seadah, “The remedial measures on the rock slopes to prevent rockfalls and to protect the commuters along Al-Hada descent road,” King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, supported project No. 14-25, 2011, 626 p.

16.     E.T. Brown, “Rock characterization testing & monitoring. ISRM Suggested Methods”. Commission of testing methods, International Society for Rock Mechanics. Pergamon Press. 211p, 1981.

17.     E. Hoek, “Practical rock engineering”, internet edition, 2007.

18.     Rocscience, “DIPS User’s manual,” Rocscience Inc., 2013.

19.     E. Hoek, and W. Bray, “Rock slope engineering”. Institute of Mining and Metallurgy. 1980.

20.     D.C Wyllie and C.W. Mah, “Rock slope engineering civil and mining” 4th ed... Taylor and Francis, 431p., 2005.

21.     Rocscience, “RocPlane v. 3 User’s guide,” 2014.

22.     Rocscience, “Swedge v. 6 User’s guide,” 2014.

23.     Rocscience, “RocTopple v.1 User’s guide,” 2014.

24.     B.H. Sadagah, “Rockfall Modeling Analysis and Mitigation at Mountainous Road, Saudi Arabia,” GeoShanghai 2014, 26-28 May, 2014, Shanghai, P.R.China.

25.     B.H. Sadagah, “Rockfall analysis, modeling and mitigation of a critical section along Al-Hada descent road, Saudi Arabia.” IAEG XII Congress, Torino, Italy, 15-19 Sept., 2014.

26.     Rocscience, “RocFall v. 5 User’s guide,” 2014.






Gaddafi Bin Ismaili

Paper Title:

Engineering Properties of Fast Growing Indigenous Timber in Sarawak Compare to Acacia Mangium: Aras

Abstract: An effort has been taken to explore fast-growing indigenous of Aras as optional species besides Acacia mangium that prone to a number of diseases. Basic information on engineering properties viz; mechanical and physical properties  from different species, and conditions were acquired from strength property's test namely, modulus of rupture, modulus of elasticity, impact bending, and compression stress parallel to grain. Meanwhile, for physical properties test namely moisture content and density. The test samples were prepared in small clear specimens according to British Standard, BS373.1957. Specimens condition which is referred to as green condition and air-dry condition. Data obtained from this study is very useful for utilization in furniture and engineering construction industries. In this study Aras was compared to Acacia mangium as the reference point use for observation. The results from the study indicated that, Aras gave the average percentage difference of mean for mechanical and physical property with 35% toward the results obtained by Acacia mangium.

Modulus of rupture, Modulus of elasticity, Impact bending, Compression stress parallel to grain, Moisture content, Density.


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2.        Krishnapillay B. and Abdul Razak Mohd Ali, 1998. Feasibility of Planning High Quality Timber Species in Peninsular Malaysia. In Proceeding of the Seminar on High Value Timber Species for Plantation Establishment-Teak and Mahoganies, 1-2 December 1998, Tawau, Sabah, pp. 91-101.

3.        Mohd Hamami Sahri, Zaidon Ashaari Razali Abdul Kaderi and Abdul Latif Mohmod, 1998. Physical And Mechanical Properties of Acacia mangium and Acacia Auriculiformis from Different Provenances PertanikaJ. Trap. Agric. Sci. 21(2): 73 - 81 (1998)

4.        Panshin, A.J. and De Zeeuw, C, 1980. Textbook of Wood Technology, Mcgraw-Hill, New York.

5.        Krishnapillay, D.B., 1998, Case Study of The Tropical Forest Plantations In Malaysia, Forest Plantations Working Papers, Forestry Department, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

6.        British Standard, 1957. Methods of Testing Small Clear Specimen of Timber. British Standard Institution. BS 373: 1957, pp. 31.

7.        Sven Thelandersson and Hans J. Larsen, 2003. Timber Engineering. John Wiley and Sons Ltd, West Sussex, England, pp. 30.

8.        Keith R. Bootle, 1985, Wood in Australia: Type, properties and uses. McGraw-Hill Book Co. Australia. 29, pp. 60-61.

9.        Alik Duju, 1999, Strength Properties of Acacia mangium Grown in Sarawak. TRTTC/STA, Forest Products Seminar, 12-14 October 1999, Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia, pp.160. 

10.     Walker, J.C.F., 1993. Primary Wood Processing: Principles and Practice, 1st Edition. Chapman & Hall, London, pp. 72, 323, 346, 353, 362.






Asri Laksmi Riani, Hunik Sri Runing Sawitri

Paper Title:

Problems and Prospects of Entrepreneurship on Learning Management in Batik Industry

Abstract: The purpose of this study is to determine: 1. Benefits of workplace training programs, 2. Issues that affect participation in training, 3. A motivator in doing business, 4. The factors that affect business activities development, 5. The importance of learning methods to develop qualified entrepreneurship. This research was conducted on the batik entrepreneurs in Surakarta, Karanganyar, and Sragen. The sampling method is non-probability sampling, with convenience sampling technique on 65 respondents. The results of this study indicate that there are tendencies that: 1. Majority of respondents will apply to learning outcomes about entrepreneurial skills in the workplace. 2. Majority of respondents want to participate actively in the training. 3. Majority of respondents feel that they get more enlightenment in the training. 4. Factors that affect business activities development, the majority of respondents feel that they see the availability of labor, raw materials, and capital. 5. In terms of teaching methods to develop qualified entrepreneurship, most respondents respectively stated that they prioritize some methods such as: case studies, role plays, business games, counseling, and lectures discussions.

Business motivator, learning methods, participation, training program.


1.        Fayolle  (2006) Fayolle, A., Gailly, B., and Lassas-Clerc, N. (2006). Assessing the impact of entrepreneurship education programmes: a new methodology. Journal of European Industrial Training Vol. 30 No. 9, 2006, pp. 701-720.
2.        Mwasalwiba, (2010) "Entrepreneurship education: a review of its objectives, teaching methods, and impact indicators", Education + Training, Vol. 52 Iss: 1, pp.20 - 47

3.        Cruz, N.M., Escudero, A.I.L., dan Leitao, F.S. (2009). The effect of entrepreneurship education programmes on satisfaction with innovation behaviour and performance. Journal of European Industrial Training. Vol. 33 No. 3, 2009, pp. 198-214.

4.        Popadiuk, Silvio, &Choo, Chun Wei (2006). "Innovation and knowledge creation: How are these concepts related?". International Journal of Information Management. Vol. 26. Pp. 302–312.

5.        Wang, C. L. and Ahmed, P. K. (2004). The development and validation of the organisational innovativeness construct using confirmatory factor analysis. European Journal of Innovation Management, 7(4):303-313.

6.        Ireland and Webb (2007) Journal of Management, Vol. 33 No. 6, December 2007 891-927

7.        Lumpkin, Dess.1996. Clarifying the Entrepreneurial Orientation Construct & Linking It to Performance. The Academy of Management Review. Vol.21, No.1, pp.135-172.






Uppe Nanaji, V. V. R. L. Sastry

Paper Title:

Scope of Proposed Internet

Abstract: The Internet is the most important information exchange means nowadays. It has become the core communication environment, not only for business relations, but also for social and human interaction. Yet, the immense success of Internet has created even higher hopes and expectations for new immersive and real-time applications and services, without guarantees that the Internet as we know it today will be able to support them. The EC Future Internet Architecture (FIArch) group has already identified some of the fundamental limitations of current Internet architecture and some of the Design Objectives of the Future Internet [FIArch]. This is the next step, which contributes towards the specification of the Design Principles that will govern the Internet architecture.

Business relations, human interaction, immersive, FLArch, Design Objectives, Design Principles.


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2.        W.Heisenberg, Über den anschulichen Inhalt der quantentheoretischen Kinematik und Mechanik, Zeitschrift für Physik, vol..43, no.3-4, pp.172-198, 1927.
3.        J.H.Saltzer,, D.P.Reed, D.D.Clark, End-To-End Arguments in System Design, ACM Transactions on Computer Systems (TOCS), vol 2, no.4, November 1984, pp 277-288.
4.        W.Stevens, G.Myers, L.Constantine, Structured Design, IBM Systems Journal, vol.13, no.2, pp.115-139, 1974.
5.        “The End-End Principle and the Definition of Internet” Preparatory Process: Working Group on Internet Governance (WGIG), Contribution of Corporation for National Research Initiatives, Prepared by: Patrice A. Lyons (November 10, 2004).






Ahmad Khan, Jallat Khan, Maria Zafar, Muhammad Irfan, Imran Rabbani

Paper Title:

Formulation Development and Optimization of Intermediate Release Metoclopramide HCl Tablets by Central Composite Rotatable Design for IVIVC Studies

Abstract: The objective of this study was development and optimization of intermediate release formulation for IVIVC study of metoclopramide HCl. A four steps simple and cost effective study was performed. The first step was to study the micromeritic properties of different powder blends with and without metoclopramide HCl (Placebo). In second and third step, central composite design (CCRD) was used for intermediate release metoclopramide tablets. In the last step stability studies of three selected metoclopramide HCl tablet formulations which were calculated using R Gui software. Varying concentrations of excipients, HPMC K4M cps, Avicel PH-102, and lactose DC were used as variables in CCRD. Preformulation studies of two blended powders i.e. placebo and metoclopramide HCl were done to evaluate the angle of repose, loose bulk density, tapped bulk density, and compressibility index. Blending rate constant was performed at different mixing times i.e. 5, 7, 12, and 15 minutes. Out of twenty intermediate release formulations, three (F1, F7, F10) were subjected to direct compression on the basis of compressibility index. Physicochemical properties and in-vitro kinetic studies in different dissolution media were measured successfully. Simple experimental studies were performed to determine relative densities, tensile strength of tablets, hardness, weight variation, friability, disintegration and dissolution of tablets. Presence of metoclopramide HCl in the powder blend enhanced all the micromeritics properties. 12 minutes was found to be the best mixing time. The increase in relative density resulted in increase in hardness of tablets containing metoclopramide HCl. The analysis of release pattern was done using model dependent kinetic approaches i.e. zero order kinetics, first order kinetics, Hixon Crowell, Higuchi kinetics, Korsmeyer and pappas, Baker and Lonsdale model, Weibull model, Hopfenberg model and peppas Sahlin model; and model independent kinetic models using f1  and f2 values. F10 showed the best result in stability studies having shelf life of 64 months calculated by RGui.

Metoclopramide HCl, Intermediate release, stability studies, central composite design, model dependent and model independent kinetic models.


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18.     Rasul A, et al.: Design, development and  in vitroevaluation of metoprolol tartrate tablets containg xanthan-tragacanth. Acta. Pol. Pharm. ñ D Res 2010. 67(5): 517-522.

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20.     Alderman DA: A Review of Cellulose Ethers in Hydrophilic Matrices for Oral Controlled Release Dosage Forms. Int. J. Pharm. Technol. Prod. Manuf. 1984. 5: 1–9.

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and Technology 2002. 7(2) 181-193.

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25.     Shah V, et al.: In Vitro Dissolution Profile Comparison—Statistics and Analysis of the Similarity Factor, f2. Pharmaceutical Research 1998. 15(6): 889-896.






D. V. Biradar, Praful P. Maktedar

Paper Title:

Investigation of Energy Consumption MANET

Abstract: In Mobile Ad hoc network (MANET) numerous mobile sensor nodes are indiscriminately situated in given system. The working of MANET is based upon collaboration of all nodes for promoting data packets and consistent route detection. A selfish node is a node who does not forward data packets to other nodes. Instead it reserves its resources and energy. Selfish node detection and elimination is an important concern issue. Energy is one of the significant qualities of service constraint in MANET. In this paper, we think about a range of means of growing reliability of system with less energy usage. Here by altering packet size, we evaluate packet Delivery Ratio, Packet loss Ratio as well as throughput, control overheads and Energy Consumption of a system.

Wireless Sensor Network; Reliability; Reporting rate, Packet Delivery ratio; Energy.


1.        Richard j. La and Eunyoung Seo,” Expected Routing Overheads for location service in MANET under flat geographic routing”, vol. 10, issue 3, March 2011.
2.        Seungjin Park, Seong-Moo Yoo”An Efficient Reliable one- hop broadcast in Mobile Ad hoc  Networks”, vol. 11, April 2012, pp 19-28.

3.        Mario di Franceseo, Giuseppe Anastani, Marco County and Sajal K. Das,”Reliability and Energy Efficiency in Wireless Sensor network”, vol. 29, issue 8, Sept. 2011.

4.        X. Xiang, X. Wang, Y. yang,”Supporting Efficient and Scalable Multicast for Mobile andAd hoc Networks”, vol. 10, No 5, April 2011.

5.        Lajos Hanzo, Rahim Tafazolli,”QoS aware Routing and Admission Control in Shadow-Fading Environments for Multirate MANETs” in IEEE journal, vol. 10, No. 5, May 2011.

6.        Yunhaui Liu, Yanmin Zhu, Lionel Mni and Guangtao Xue, “A Relibility Oriented Transmission Services in Wireless Sensor network” Journal IEEE transactions on parallel and Distributed Syatems, vol. 22, issues 12, Dec. 2011, pp 2100-2107.

7.        Robert J.Hall,” An Improved Geocast for Mobile Ad hoc Networks”, IEEE communication letters, vol. 10, No. 2, Feb. 2011.

8.        Shoubhik Mukhopadhyay, Debashis Panigrahi,”Model Based Techniques for Data Reliability in Wireless Sensor Network”, vol. 8, issues 4, April 2009.

9.        Shengbo Yang, Chai Kiat Yeo, Bu Sung Lee ,“Towards Reliable data delivery for highly Dynamic Mobile Ad hoc Networks” Journal IEEE transactions on parallel and Distributed Syatems, vol. 22, issues 12, Dec. 2011,  pp 2100-2107.

10.     Zhenzhen Ye, AlhussionA.Abouzeid,” Optimal Stochastic Location updates in mobile Ad Hoc Networks”, vol. 10, No. 5, May 2011.

11.     Hong Luo, Huadong Ma and Sajal K. Das,”Data Fusion with Desired Reliability in Wireless Sensor networks”,vol. 22, March 2011.






Keshavamurthy, Dharmishtan K. Varughese

Paper Title:

Remote Lab Circuit Temperature and Intensity Measurement and Control

Abstract: Data acquisition systems are primarily systems which receive the analog data, perform and process the predefined response. Data acquisition (DAQ) is to obtain the data that can be manipulated by a PC, data acquisition, mainly involves getting analog signals, waveforms and processing them to obtain required information. The main electronic device of DAQ systems includes sensors which converts any parameter to an electrical in nature, then processing the signal and send to the by a DAQ hardware.These papers discuss two real signals, particularly light intensity and temperature and transmit this information through wireless to a facility that has better human processing and accessibility capability. The application of this paper is in places where analog values of the surroundings have to be remotely received, monitored and controlled.

DAQ, hyper terminal, wireless technology, sensor and Real time display.


1.        L. D. Feisel, A. J. Rosa, "The Role of the Laboratory in Engineering Education", Journal of Engineering Education, vol. 94, n. 1, pp. 121-130, January 2005.
2.        G. D. Peterson, L. D. Feisel, "e-Learning: The challenge for Engineering Education", Proc. of The e-Technologies in Engineering Education, Davos (Switzerland), Aug 2002, pp. 164-    169.

3.        L. Anido, M. Llamas. M. J. Fernandez, “Internet-based Learning by Doing", IEEE Trans. on Education, vol. 44, n. 2, pp, May 2001

4.        A. Ferrero, V. Piuri, "A Simulation Tool for Virtual Laboratory Experiments in WWW Environment", IEEE Trans. on Instrumentation and Measurement, vol. 48, n. 3, pp. 741-746, June 2007.

5.        L. Benetazzo, M. Bertocco, F. Ferraris, A. Ferrero, C. Offelli, M.Parvis, V. Piuri, "A Web-Based Distributed Virtual Educational Laboratory", IEEE Trans. on Instrumentation and Measurement, vol. 49, n. 2, pp. 349-356, April 2008

6.        M. Duarte, A. Mahalingam, B. P. Butz, "The intelligent Universal Virtual Laboratory (UVL)", Proc. of the 35th ASEEIIEEE Frontiers in Education Conference, Indianapolis (USA), October 2005, pp. T4G- 1-6.

7.        I. Gustavsson, "A Remote Access Laboratory for Electrical Circuit Experiments", The International Journal of Engineering Education,vol. 19, n.3, pp. 409-419, 2007.






Eglantina Kalluci, Fatmir Hoxha

Paper Title:

Accelerated Multipoint Root Finding Iterative Methods

Abstract: Root finding is one of the most significant problems not only of applied mathematics, but also of engineering sciences, physics, finance etc. The implementation of efficient numerical methods to build-in functions in different software programs is a task we want to achieve. We possess different groups of methods with sufficiently good convergence order, but as we know the higher the speed is a larger amount of function and derivative evaluations per iteration is needed. In this paper we will present new multipoint methods with higher computational efficiency, than known ones. The comparison will be made by defining the computational efficiency based on the convergence order, and the efficiency index, which measures the cost of performing iteration.

Efficiency index, iterative method, order of convergence, root finding.


1.        Basu D., From third to fourth order variant of Newton’s method for simple roots, Appl. Math. Comput. 202, 2008.
2.        McNamee, J. M., Numerical methods for roots of polynomials, Studies in Computational Mathematics 14, Elsevier, 2007.

3.        Ortega J., M., Rheinboldt W. C., Iterative solution of nonlinear equations in several variables, Academic Press, New York, 1970.

4.        Osada N., An optimal multiple root-finding method of order three, J. Comput. Appl. Math. 51, 131-133,1994.

5.        Ostrowski A. M., Solution of Equations and Systems of Equations, Academic Press, New York, 1960.

6.        Petkovic M., Neta B., Petkovic L., Dzunic J., Multipoint methods for solving nonlinear equations: A survey, Appl. Math. Comput. 226, 2014.

7.        Traub J. F., Iterative methods for the solution of equations, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1964.






Premila S, T. Gunasekaran

Paper Title:

A Review on Adder Design using QCA Systolic Array

Abstract: Quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) are considered as an advanced technology compared to complimentary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) due to QCA’s merits. Many logical circuits are designed using QCA which consume low power and reduced area. Therefore our interest is on designing of adders using QCA. Thus we design adders and detailed simulation using QCAD designer is presented. The performance of proposed adder gives the better Delay performance compared to Ripple carry adder (RCA).

Quantum-dot Cellular Automata, systolic array, matrix multiplier, Galois Field multiplier, coplanar crossing, multilayer crossover.


1.        Liang Lu, Weiqiang Liu,Ma´ ire O’Neill, and Earl E. Swartzlander Jr. “QCA Systolic Array Design,” vol no 62,march 2013.
2.        C. Lent,B. Isaksen, and M. Lieberman, “Molecular Quantum-Dot Cellular Automata,” J. Am. Chemical Soc., vol. 125, pp. 1056-1063, 2011.

3.        I. Amlani, A. Orlov, G. Toth, G. Bernstein, C. Lent, and G. Snider, “Digital Logic Gate Using Quantum-Dot Cellular Automata,” Science, vol. 284, pp. 289-291, 2011.

4.        X. Ma, J. Huang, and F. Lombardi, “A Model for Computing and Energy Dissipation of Molecular QCA Devices and Circuits,” ACM J. Emerging Technologies in Computing Systems, vol. 3, pp. 1-30, 2010.

5.        A.DeHon and  M. Wilson, “Nanowire-Based Sublithographic Programmable Logic Arrays,” Proc. ACM/SIGDA 12th Int’l Symp. Field Programmable Gate Arrays, pp. 123-132, 2009.






Bhagyashree Anil Dere, Sheetal Bhujade

Paper Title:

An Efficient Spectrum Decision Making Framework for Cognitive Radio Networks

Abstract: This review paper is based on the spectrum decision framework for cognitive radio networks. Cognitive radio networks have been proposed as a solution to both spectrum inefficiency and spectrum scarcity problems. However, they face to a unique challenge based on the fluctuating nature of heterogeneous spectrum bands as well as the diverse service requirements of various applications. In this paper, a spectrum decision framework is proposed to determine a set of spectrum bands by considering the application requirements as well as the dynamic nature of spectrum bands. To this end, first, each spectrum is characterized by jointly considering primary user activity and spectrum sensing operations. Based on this, a minimum variance based spectrum decision is proposed for real-time applications, which minimizes the capacity variance of the decided spectrum bands subject to the capacity constraints. For best-effort applications, a maximum capacity-based spectrum decision is proposed where spectrum bands are decided to maximize the total network capacity.

Spectrum decision framework, cognitive radio networks, spectrum scarcity, network capacity.


1.        I.F. Akyildiz, W.-Y. Lee, M.C. Vuran, and S. Mohanty, “A Survey on Spectrum Management in Cognitive Radio Networks,” IEEE Comm. Magazine, vol. 46, no. 4, pp. 40-48, Apr. 2008.
2.        D. Cabric, S.M. Mishra, and R.W. Brodersen, “Implementation Issues in Spectrum Sensing for Cognitive Radios,” Proc. IEEE Asilomar Conf. Signals, Systems and Computers, pp. 772-776, Nov. 2004.

3.        D. Cabric, S.M. Mishra, D. Willkomm, R. Brodersen, and A. Wolisz, “A Cognitive Radio Approach for Usage of Virtual Unlicensed Spectrum,” Proc. 14th IST Mobile
and Wireless Comm. Summit, June 2005.

4.        L. Cao and H. Zheng, “Distributed Spectrum Allocation via Local Bargaining,” Proc. IEEE Sensor and Ad Hoc Comm. and Networks (SECON), pp. 475-486, Sept. 2005.

5.        L. Cao and H. Zheng, “Distributed Rule-Regulated Spectrum Sharing,” IEEE J. Selected Areas in Comm., vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 130- 145, Jan. 2008.

6.        C. Chou, S. Shankar, H. Kim, and K.G. Shin, “What and How Much to Gain by Spectrum Agility?” IEEE J. Selected Areas in Comm., vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 576-588, Apr. 2007.

7.        R. Etkin, A. Parekh, and D. Tse, “Spectrum Sharing for Unlicensed Bands,” IEEE J. Selected Areas in Comm., vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 517-528, Apr. 2007.

8.        J.R. Evans and E. Minieka, Optimization Algorithms for Networks and Graphs, second ed. CRC Press, 1992.

9.        FCC, ET Docket No 02-135, Spectrum Policy Task Force Report, Nov. 2002.

10.     M. Gandetto and C. Regazzoni, “Spectrum Sensing: A Distributed Approach for Cognitive Terminals,” IEEE J. Selected Areas in Comm., vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 546-557, Apr. 2007.

11.     IEEE P802.22/D0.3.8.1, IEEE 802.22 WG, Draft Standard for Wireless Regional Area Networks Part 22: Cognitive Wireless RAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications: Policies and Procedures for Operation in the TV Bands, IEEE, Sept. 2007.

12.     X. Kang, Y. Liang, A. Nallanathan, H. Garg, and R. Zhiang, “Optimal Power Allocation for Fading Channels in CR Networks: Ergodic Capacity and Outage Capacity,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Comm., vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 940-950, Feb. 2009.

13.     W.-Y. Lee and I.F. Akyildiz, “Optimal Spectrum Sensing Framework for Cognitive Radio Networks,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Comm., vol. 7, no. 10, pp. 3845-3857, Oct. 2008.

14.     W.-Y. Lee and I.F. Akyildiz, “Spectrum-Aware Mobility Management in Cognitive Radio Cellular Networks,” to be published.

15.     Y.C. Liang, Y. Zeng, E. Peh, and A.T. Hoang, “Sensing- Throughput Tradeoff for Cognitive Radio Networks,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Comm., vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 1326-1337, Apr. 2008.

16.     N. Nie and C. Comaniciu, “Adaptive Channel Allocation Spectrum Etiquette for Cognitive Radio Networks,” Proc.First IEEE Int’l Symp. New Frontiers in Dynamic Spectrum Access Networks (DySPAN ’05), pp. 269-278, Nov. 2005.

17.     C. Peng, H. Zheng, and B.Y. Zhao, “Utilization and Fairness in Spectrum Assignment for Opportunistic Spectrum Access,” ACM Mobile Networks and Applications, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 555-576, Aug. 2006.

18.     M.R. Chari, F. Ling, A. Mantravadi, R. Krishnamoorthi, R. Vijayan, G.K. Walker, and R. Chandhok, “FLO Physical Layer: An Overview,” IEEE Trans. Broadcasting, vol. 53, no. 1, pp. 145-159, Mar. 2007.

19.     T. Rappaport, Wireless Communications: Principles and Practice, second ed. Prentice Hall, 2001.

20.     H. Shiang and M. Schaar, “Queuing-Based Dynamic Channel Selection for Heterogeneous Multimedia Applications over Cognitive Radio Networks,” IEEE Trans. Multimedia, vol. 5, no. 10, pp. 896-909, Aug. 2008.

21.     K. Sriram and W. Whitt, “Characterizing Superposition Arrival Processes in Packet Multiplexers for Voice and Data,” IEEE J. Selected Areas in Comm., vol. 4, no. 6, pp. 833-846, Sept. 1986.

22.     L. Zhang, Y. Liang, and Y. Xin, “Joint Beamforming and Power Allocation for Multiple Access Channels in Cognitive Radio Networks,” IEEE J. Selected Areas in Comm., vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 38-51, Jan. 2008.






D. Madhusudana Rao, G. Srinivasa Rao

Paper Title:

Structure of Certain Ideals in Ternary Semirings

Abstract: In this paper we studied about principal ternary ideals, simple ternary ideals and semisimple ternary ideals in ternary semirings. Mathematics Subject Classification: 16Y30, 16Y99.

Left simple, lateral simple, right simple, simple, duo ternary semiring, semisimple ternary semiring, globally idempotent.


1.        Chinaram, R., A note on quasi-ideal in ¡¡semirings, Int. Math. Forum, 3 (2008), 253{1259.
2.        Dixit, V.N. and Dewan, S., A note on quasi and bi-ideals in ternary semigroups, Int. J. Math. Math. Sci. 18, no. 3 (1995), 501{508.

3.        Dutta, T.K. and Kar, S., On regular ternary semirings, Advances in Algebra, Proceedings of the ICM Satellite Conference  in Algebra and Related Topics, World Scienti¯c,  New Jersey, 2003, 3IV3{355.

4.        Dutta, T.K. and Kar, S., A note on regular ternary semirings, Kyung-pook Math. J., IV6 (2006), 357{365.

5.        Kar, S., On quasi-ideals and bi- ideals in ternary semirings, Int. J. Math. Math. Sc., 18 (2005), 3015{3023.

6.        Lehmer. D. H., A ternary analogue  of abelian groups, Amer. J. Math.,. 59(1932), 329-338.

7.        Lister, W.G., Ternary rings, Trans Amer. Math.Soc., 15IV (1971), 37-  55.

8.        Madhusudhana Rao. D., Primary Ideals in Quasi-Commutative Ternary Semigroups International Research Journal of Pure Algebra – 3(7), 2013, 25IV-258.

9.        Madhusudhana Rao. D. and Srinivasa Rao. G., Special Elements of a Ternary Semirings, International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications, Vol. IV, Issue 11 (Version-5), November 201IV, pp. 123-130.

10.     Madhusudhana Rao. D. and Srinivasa Rao. G., Concepts on Ternary Semirings, International Journal of Modern Science and Engineering Technology, Volume 1, Issue 7, 201IV, pp. 105-110.        

11.     Zhan, J. and Dudek, W.A., Fuzzy h¡ideals of  hemirings, Inform. Sci., 177 (2007), 876{886.

12.     Madhusudhana Rao. D. and Srinivasa Rao. G., Special Elements of a Ternary Semiring, International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications – Vol.4, Issue 11(Version-5), November 2014, pp. 123-130.

13.     Madhusudhana Rao. D. and Srinivasa Rao. G., Concepts of Ternary Semirings – International Journal of Modern Science and Engineering Technology – Volume 1, Issue 7, 2014, pp. 105-110.






Rushikesh T. Bankar, Suresh S. Salankar

Paper Title:

Implementation of an Intelligent Head Gesture Recognition System

Abstract: As per the rapidly advancement in the changing technology, the numerous applications are required. For example, for face, hand and gesture recognition. The previous researchers have been developed various methods foe head gesture recognition and they presented various limitations. Therefore the paper proposes an FPGA based gesture recognition system. The gesture detection and gesture recognition can achieve 30 frames per second using FPGA system. Accordingly that the system software can subsequently schedule all the tasks during the processing. The proposed system also introduces the obstacle detection technique. The system uses ultrasonic sensors for the obstacle detection. The proposed system is responsible for the detection of obstacles.

Wheelchair Interface, Ultrasonic Sensors, Face Detection, Gesture Recognition.


1.        P. Jia, H. Hu, T. Lu  and K. Yuan, “Head Gesture Recognition for Hands Free Control of an Intelligent Wheelchair”, An International Journal 34 / 1 (2007) 60 – 68.
2.        Hyunduk Kim, Sang Heon Lee, Myoung Kyu Sohn and Dong Ju Kim, “Illumination invariant head pose estimation using random forests classifier and binary pattern run length matrix”, Human Centric Computing and Information Sciences, a Springer Open Journal, 2014.

3.        Manju Davy, and R. Deepa, “Hardware Implementation Based on Head Movement using Accelerometer Sensor”, International Journal of Applied Sciences and Engineering Research, Vol. 3, Issue 1, 2014.

4.        Ericka Janet Rechy Ramirez, and Huosheng Hu, “A Flexible Bio Signal based HMI for Hands Free Control of an Electric Powered Wheelchair”, An International Journal of Artificial Life Research, 4(1), 59 - 76, January - March 2014.

5.        Chanlit Noiruxsar and Pranchalee Samanpiboon, “Face orientation Recognition for Electric Wheelchair Control”,  Journal of Automation and Control Engineering Vol. 2, No. 4, December 2014.

6.        Pei Fia, and Huosheng H. Hu, “Head Gesture Recognition for Hands Free Control of an Intelligent Wheelchair” Research Article, www.emeraldinsight.com/0143-991X.htm.

7.        Parimita Saikia, and Karen Das, “Head Gesture Recognition using optical flow based classification with reinforcement of GMM based background subtraction” International Journal of Computer Applications (0975-8887), volume 65, No. 25, March 2013.

8.        Preeti Srivastava, Dr. S. Chatterjee, and Ritula Thakur, “A Novel Head Gesture Recognition Based Control for Intelligent Wheelchairs”, International Journal of Research in Electrical & Electronics Engineering, Volume 2, Issue 2, April - June, 2014, pp. 10 - 17..

9.        Yuan Luo Zhang Fang Hu, and Lin Li Yizhang, “A Novel Head Gesture Recognition means in the Human Wheelchair Interaction”, International Conference on Computer Application and System Modeling (ICCASM 2010).

10.     Chanlit Noiruxsar and Pranchalee Samanpiboon, “Face Orientation Recognition for Electric Wheelchair Control”, Journal of Automation and Control Engineering, Vol. 2, No. 4, December 2014.

11.     D. Cagigas and J. Abascal, “Hierarchical path search with partial materialization of costs for a smart wheelchair”, Journal of Intelligent and Robotic Systems, Vol. 39, No. 4, pp. 409 - 431, Apr. 2004.

12.     Y. Wei, “Vision Based Human Robot Interaction and Navigation of Intelligent Service Robots”, PhD Thesis, Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China, 2004.

13.     Jatin Chatrath, Pankaj Gupta, Puneet Ahuja, Aryan Goel, Shaifali M.Arora. “Real Time Human Face Detection And Tracking”. 2014 international conference on signal processing and integrated networks (SPIN) 978-1-4799-2866-3/14/$31 2014IEEE

14.     Yuan Luo Zhang-fang Hu, Lin li yizhang, “A novel head gesture recognition means in human-wheelchair interaction*”, 2010 International conference on computer application and system modeling (ICCASM 2010) 978-1-4244-7237-6/10/$26.00 2010 IEEE.






Shraddha V. Manikpure, Rushikesh T. Bankar, Suresh S. Salankar

Paper Title:

A Review on Robo Chair Assistance using Head Gesture Recognition

Abstract: Face detection is a computer technology that determines the location & size of human faces in digital images. Thus by determining the head gesture of person sitting on robo chair the controlling of the chair can be done by the improved Adaboost algorithm. The recognized gestures are used to generate motion control commands to the low-level DSP motion controller so that it can control the motion of the Robo Chair according to the user’s need. Looking for something, when the commands for the movement are generating must be considered unnecessary movement, thus to avoid this, Head gesture interface focused on the central position of a person sitting on robo chair & identify only the useful head gesture. This paper determines, the improved Adaboost algorithm used for face detection is to increase the output results for the system, effectiveness of the system & efficiency on which the system implements. The concept of Obstacle detection is also used for the enhancement of the system, it is done by using ultra sonic sensors.

Face Recognition, Head Gestures, Face Tracking, Obstacle Avoidance.


1.        Deepesh K. Rathore, Pulkit Shrivastava, Sankalp Pandey, Sudhanshu Jaiswal. “Anovel Multipurpose Smart Wheelchair”, 2014 IEEE students’ conference on Electrical, Electronics and Computer Science.978-1-4799-2526-1/14/$31.00 2014IEEE.
2.        Jatin Chatrath, Pankaj Gupta, Puneet Ahuja, Aryan Goel, Shaifali M.Arora. “Real Time Human Face Detection And Tracking”. 2014 international conference on signal processing and integrated networks (SPIN) 978-1-4799-2866-3/14/$31 2014IEEE

3.        Yuan Luo Zhang-fang Hu, Lin li yizhang, “A novel head gesture recognition means in human-wheelchair interaction*”, 2010 International conference on computer application and system modeling (ICCASM 2010) 978-1-4244-7237-6/10/$26.00 2010 IEEE.

4.        Shang Fuhua. “research of Improved Adaboost Algorithm Based On Unbalanced Data”. IJCSNS Interbational Journal Of Computer Science and Network security, VOL.14 No.5, May2014.

5.        Yi Xiang, Ying Wu and Jun peng. “An Improved AdaBoost Face Detection Algorithm Based on the Weighted Parameters of wheak classifier” 12th IEEE Int.conf.on Cognitive Informatics & Cognitive Computing [ICCI*CC*13] 978-1-4799-0783-0/13/$31.00 2013IEEE.

6.        Jia Mingxing, Du Junqiang, Chrng Tao, Yang Ning, Jiang Yi, Zhang Zhen. “An Improved Detection Algorithm of Face with Combining AdaBoost and SVM” 978-1-4673-5534-6/13/$31.00 2013IEEE.

7.        Hairong Jiang, Bradley S. Duerstock, Juan P.Waches. “A Machine Vision-Based GesturalInterface for People With Upper Extremity Physical Impairments”. IEEE transaction on systems, man, and cybernetics: systems, VOL. 44, No.5, MAY 2014.

8.        Zyad Shaaban. “ Face Detection Methods”. 2011 International Conference on computer and software modeling IPCSIT vol. 12 (2011) IACSIT press, Singapore.

9.        Yuichiro Tajima, Koichi Ito, Takafumi Aoki, “ Performance Improvement of Face Recognition Algorithms Using Occluded-Region Detection”, 978-1-4799-0310-8/13/$31.00 2013 IEEE.

10.     Chigulla Leela Kumari, “ Building Algorithm For obstacle Detection and Avoidance Syatem for Wheeled Mobile Robot”, Global journal of research in engineering, electrical and electronics engineering Vol.12 Issue 11 version. 1.0 year 2012. ISSN 0975-5861.

11.     Widodo Budiharto, Djoko Purwanto and Achmad Jazidie. “ A robust Obstacle avoidance for service robot using Bayesian Approach”. Interbational journal of Advanced Robotics Systems, Vol.8, No.1 (2011) ISSN 1729-8806, pp 37-44.






Tilottama Dhake, Pratik Gala, Keval Jain, Bhavesh Mayekar, Priyal Shah

Paper Title:

Comparison Between WiMAX and LTE Based on System Level Simulation using NS2

Abstract: The increasing use of wireless devices and in particular smart phones has resulted the need for greater capacity and higher speed than the existing network technologies. Hence, LTE (Long Term Evolution) and WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access) became the two leading technologies considered for adoption to fulfill this need. The industry landscape in telecommunications is changing rapidly at the moment. Services are increasingly shifting from voice to data and from circuit-switched to packet-switched ones. Battle between LTE and WiMAX technologies is already heating up with WiMAX being ahead due to availability of standards through IEEE 802.16 and is up and running but lacks in substantial roll out plans due to cost. On the contrary, LTE upgrades from 3G networks are rumored to be as simple as slotting in a new card in the rack. LTE has gained far greater support and adoption in the industry thus leaving WiMAX future prospects limited

LTE (Long Term Evolution), WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access), Technologies.


1.        Tejas Bhandare, “LTE and WiMAX Comparison”, Santa Clara University, 2008, White Paper
2.        Challenges and issues in 4G – Networks Mobility Management Payaswini P, Manjaiah D.H Dept of Computer Science, Mangalore University, Karnataka, India, 2013.

3.        Jeffrey G.Andrews, Arunabha Ghosh, Rias Muhamed, Fundamentals of WiMAX, Prentice Hall Communications Engineering and Emerging Technology Series, 2007.

4.        “UMTS Long Term Evolution (LTE) Technology Introduction”, Application Note 1MA111, Rohde & Schwarz Products, 2007






Prabha R, Krishnaveni M, Manjula S. H, K. R. Venugopal, L. M. Patnaik

Paper Title:

TAEER: Trust Aware Energy Efficient Routing Frame Work for Wireless Sensor Networks

Abstract: Wireless Sensor Networks are basically employed for critical tasks whose operation is of prime importance.The sensor nodes are deployed in an environment where human intervention is not possible most of the times. The deployment of sensor nodes in habitat monitoring, health care, military fields demands that  security to be in place because the data being handled is highly confidential. Wireless sensor networks are vulnerableto a wide set of attacks which threaten the network operation. The routing procedure employed inwireless sensor networks must becapable of preventing the data integrity loss that results out of the both active and passive attacks. In addition to the network being secure, trust establishment atvarious points at which the data is transmitted and energy awareness is essential tohave high network lifetime. Networks are highly constrained in resources such as memory, processing capabilities and energy. This resourceconstraint is a rigid obstacle against applying traditional security mechanism like cryptographic solutions which need too much processing power and thus leading to heavy energy consumption.  The limited energy resources on sensor nodes makethem an attractive target for the attackers.  Our proposed protocol caters to include trustworthiness and energy awareness by including a trust model thatincludesboth directand indirecttrusts.The proposed protocol safeguards a wireless sensor network from intruders by considering the trustworthiness of the forwarder node at every stage of multi-hop routing. Increasesnetwork lifetime by considering the energy level of the node, preventstheadversaryfrom tracing the route from source to destination by providing path variation. The protocolis built on NS2 Simulator. Experimental results show that the protocol provides energy balance through establishment of trustworthy paths from the sourceto thedestination.

Energy Awareness, Routing, Security, Trust Model, Wireless Sensor Network.


1.        Djenouri, D, Khelladi, L.,Badache, A.N. “A Survey of Security Issuesin Mobile ad hoc and Sensor Networks”, Communications Surveysand Tutorials, IEEE, vol. 7, no. 4, pages  2 – 28,  2005.
2.        J. Lopez, R. Roman, I. Agudo and C. F. Gago, “Trust Management Systems for Wireless Sensor Networks: Best Practices,” Computer Communications, vol. 33, no.9, pp. 1086-1093, 2010.

3.        ShaikSahilBabu, ArnabRaha, MrinalKantiNaskar,”A Direct Trust Dependent Link State Routing ProtocolUsing Route Trusts for WSNs (DTLSRP)”, Scientific Research Journal, vol 3,2011.

4.        Nitinwankhade  andSandipKadam, “Securing Wireless Sensor Network: Trust Aware Routing Framework (TARF)”, International Journal of Computer and Organization Trends,vol. 14, no. 1,November  2014.

5.        Guoxing Zhan, Weisong Shi, and Julia Deng ,”Design and Implementation of TARF: A Trust-Aware Routing Framework for WSNs, vol. 9, no.  2.2009.

6.        Guanghua Zhang, Yuqing Zhang and ZhenguoChen“Using Trust to Secure Geographic and Energy Aware Routing against Multiple Attacks” Chen National Natural Science Foundation of China, 2014.

7.        SurbhiTayal, ShaliniTiwariand and M. Mohan “Implementationof An Energy Efficient Routing Protocol: TARF (Trust-Aware Routing Framework ),International Journal of Engineering Research and Technology (IJERT),vol. 2, no.  5, May – 2013.

8.        Leena and ArunKumar,”Designand Accomplishment of TARF:A Trust-Aware Routing Framework for WSNs”,International Journal of P2P Network Trends and Technology (IJPTT)”, vol. 2, 2014.

9.        Suneyna and Bhavneesh Malik,“ Security Enhancement Based on Trust Aware Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks”,InternationalJournal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Software Engineering , vol. 3, no.9, September  2013.

10.     Theodore Zahariadis, IoannisPapaefstathiou and Lionel Besson “Design and Implementation of a Trust-Aware Routing Protocol For LargeWSNs” International Journal of Network Security & Its Applications (IJNSA), vol.2, no.3, July 2010.

11.     DipaliDikondwar,and R. K. Krishna “Implementation of Energy Efficient and TtrustAwareRouting for WSNs – Energy Consideration” ,International Journal of Scientific and Engineering Research, Volume 4, no. 7, July2013.

12.     SaPragna, Shakeel Ahmed and .SaiManogna “Performance Analysis of Trust-Aware Routing Framework for Wireless Mesh Networks”,International Journal of Modern Engineering Research (IJMER),vol. 3, no. 5, 2013.

13.     Geetha D Devanagavi, N Nalini, Rajashekar C Biradar.,”Trusted Neighbors Based Secured Routing Scheme in Wireless Sensor Networks Using Agents”, International Journal of Wireless Personal Communication, vol 78, no 1,2014.

14.     G. Priyadharshini andM.Parimala “Trust Aware Routing Framework for WSN”, Journal of Innovative Research in Computer and Communication Engineering, vol.2,  no 11, November 2014.





Sheikh Jaber Nurani, Chandan Kumar Saha, M. N Haque

Paper Title:

Mechanical Properties and Wear Strengths of Piston Alloy-Alumina Composites

Abstract: Aluminium metal matrix composites reinforced with alumina particles have better mechanical and tribological properties than aluminium alloys. For this reasons these composites are widely used in aerospace and automobile industries. In this work Scrap piston alloy was used as master alloy because it contains silicon and magnesium. Silicon increases the casting ability and magnesium increases the wettability of alumina particles in master alloy. The desired composites were produced by the stir casting method by adding 5%, 10% and 15% alumina particles in master alloy respectively. For each composite alumina particles were preheated to a temperature of 800°C for 2 hours. Then particles were added gradually into the molten master alloy for achieving improved wettability and uniform distribution. The stirring was continued for 5 minutes. Finally composites ware poured into permanent metallic moulds at a temperature of 650°C. The tensile strength and hardness of the composites were examined. All composites have higher strength than master alloy. Addition of alumina particles in master alloy increases the hardness of the composites. The wear tests were conducted using pin on disc wear testing machine with counter surface as steel disc of hardness HRC 32 and surface roughness of 0.62 µm. The composite pin was used as specimens and all the wear tests were carried out in air and dry sliding conditions. It was found that composites have superior wear resistance property over master alloy. It was also examined the effect of load, sliding speed and sliding distance on wear behaviour. All these three factors increase the wear loss. Microstructural characterization of the composites has performed.

Composite, piston alloy, alumina particles, stir casting, tensile strength, hardness and wear properties.


1.        Ehsani R, Reihani SMS, T 2004, ‘Aging Behavior and Tensile Properties of Squeeze Cast AL 6061/SIC Metal Matrix Composites’, Scientia Iranica, vol. 11, pp. 392- 397.
2.        Mahdavi S, Akhlaghi F, T 2011, ‘Effect of the Graphite Content on the Tribological Behavior of Al/Gr and Al/30SiC/Gr Composites Processed by In Situ Powder Metallurgy (IPM) Method’, Tribology Letter, vol. 44, pp. 1-12

3.        M. Kok, A 2005, ‘Production and mechanical properties of AI2O3 particle-reinforced 2024 aluminium alloy composites", Journal of Materials Processing Technology, vol. 161 no 381

4.        Sahin Y, Acilar M, T 2003, ‘Production and properties of SiCp-reinforced aluminium alloy composites’, Compos Part  A, vol. 34, pp. 709-718.

5.        Sajjadi SA, Ezatpour HR, Beygi H, T 2011, ‘Microstructure and mechanical properties of Al–Al2O3 micro and nano composites fabricated by stir casting’, Mat Sci Eng, vol. 528, pp. 8765-8771.

6.        S. Balasivanandha Prabu, L. Karunamoorthy, S. Kathiresan, B. Mohan, P 2006, ‘Influence of stirring speed and stirring time on distribution of particles in cast metal matrix composite’, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, vol.171 pp. 268-273.

7.        S.C.Sharma, M.Krishna, P.S.Vizhian and A. Shashishankar, P 2002, ‘IMECHE J. Auto Eng. Part D’, vol. 216 pp. 975.

8.        Straffelini G, Bonollo F, Molinari A, Tiziani A, P 1997, ‘Influence of matrix hardness on the dry sliding wear behaviour of 20 vol. % Al2O3-particulate-reinforced 6061 Al metal matrix composite’, vol. 211, pp. 192-197.
9.        Suresh N, Venkateswaran S, Seetharamu S, T 2010, ‘Influence of cenospheres of fly ash on the mechanical properties and wear of permanent moulded eutectic Al–Si alloys’ Mater Science vol. 28, pp. 55-65.
10.     S.V Prasad, R. Asthana, T2004, ‘Aluminium metal matrix composites in automotive application: tribological consideration’, tribology letters, Vol. 17 no. 3, pp. 445-453.






Bhushan P. Ragit, Arti V. Bhingare, Rushikesh T. Bankar

Paper Title:

An Intelligent Fruit Counting System

Abstract: In this paper image processing based yield counting system and health monitoring of citrus fruit is being processed. The model which is explained in the paper can be worked in any graphical area. The system consists of an automatic robot which revolves around. The axis of citrus tree and clicks various images from different angle. Then this images are processed by image processing algorithm and color based counting of fruit is presented at the output. The system is being designed to automatically and accurately calculated  the yield of citrus group tree and health monitoring is temperature and moisture of tree is also include in system.

Keywords: Digital Signal Processing, Signal Processing, Data Equalization, Embedded Technology, Image Processing, Robotics, WSN.


1.        Ulzii-Orshikh Dorj, Malrey Lee, and Sangsub Han, "A Comparative Study on Tangerine Detection, Counting and Yield Estimation Algorithm", International Journal of Security and Its Applications Vol. 7, No. 3, May, 2013, pp. 405 - 412.
2.        Prof. S. Nandyal, Jagadeesha, "Crop Growth Prediction Based on Fruit Recognition Using Machine Vision ", International Journal of Computer Trends and Technology (IJCTT) - Volume 4 Issue 9 - Sep 2013, pp. 3132 - 3138.

3.        H. N. Patel, A. D. Patel, “Automatic Segmentation and Yield Measurement of Fruit using Shape Analysis ", International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 - 8887) Volume 45 - No.7, May 2012, pp. 19 - 24.

4.        Raphael Linker, Oded Cohen, Amos Naor, “Determination of the number of green apples in RGB images recorded in orchards", Computers and Electronics in Agriculture 81, Elsevier, (2012) 45 - 57.

5.        Rong Zhou, Lutz Damerow, Michael M. Blanke, Recognition Algorithms for Detection of Apple Fruit in an Orchard for early yield prediction.

6.        H. N. Patel, A. D. Patel, “Fruit Detection using Improved Multiple Features based Algorithm ", International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 - 8887) Volume 13 - No.2, January 2011, pp. 1 - 5.