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Volume-5 Issue-12, June 2019, ISSN: 2319–6386 (Online)
Published By: Blue Eyes Intelligence Engineering & Sciences Publication

Page No.

1.

Authors:

Enock Musabyimana, Abedenego O. Gwaya, Titus Kivaa

Paper Title:

Adoption of Building Information Modeling (BIM) on Construction Projects in Rwanda

Abstract: The construction industry is experiencing fast and adaptive innovations, new construction technologies such as 3-Dimensional printed structures using robots and different platforms are increasingly developed laid by Building Information Modeling (BIM). The technology is transforming the way that buildings and infrastructure are designed, constructed and operated and it is helping to improve decision making and performance across the buildings and infrastructure. Where BIM has not been fully applied to the infrastructure life cycle like our case of Rwanda, the industry has to undergo these technologies to be in line with others. BIM adoption on construction projects in Rwanda is an issue discussed in this study. Results revealed that only 29.1% of the total respondents were aware of BIM existence, 82.9% of those who were aware have been using it while 17.1% have not. 2D and 3D are the most frequently BIM dimensions used in Rwanda. The study validated the current shortage of building design professionals trained in collaborative design and construction practices. The study also addressed the need for BIM full adoption on construction projects in Rwanda. A process of adopting BIM on the construction project was elaborated. The Ministry of infrastructure would benefit from implementing the process for adoption discussed in this study. It was therefore recommended to fully uptake BIM on construction projects life-cycle and facilities management in Rwanda.

Keywords: Building Information Modelling, BIM Adoption in Rwanda, Construction Projects, Construction Technology.

References:

  1. The Swedish Trade & Invest Council, "Opportunities in the construction industry in Rwanda," 2017.
  2. Ministry of Infrastructure, Rwanda National Construction Industry Policy, Kigali, 2009.
  3. Autodesk, "What is BIM," 2018.
  4. Musabyimana, "Should Rwanda's construction industry adopt BIM technology?," Construction Magazine Rwanda, vol. 3, no. 10, p. 30, 2017.
  5. Goubau, in What is BIM? What its Benefits to the Construction Industry?, 2018.
  6. Goubau, "A History of BIM," 2017.
  7. Kiviniemi, Review of the Development and Implementation of IFC Compatible BIM. Erabuild, 2008.
  8. Morrel, "BIM to be rolled out to all projects by 2016," The Architects Journal, vol. Vol 233 (23). pp10, 2011.
  9. Wright, "BIM: Nine experts on what they've learnt," 2012.
  10. GenieBelt, "The Future Of Construction – BIM," Vesterbrogade 2B, 1620 Copenhagen V, Denmark, 2017.
  11. P. Arnal, "BIM news: Last trends of the AECO sector-Why don't we start at the beginning? The Basics of a Project: Lean Planning and Pre-Construction," BIM Community, 2018.
  12. Goubau, "BIM: Challenges and Potential," 2018.
  13. Kamardeen, "8D BIM Modelling Tool For Accident Prevention Through Design," Faculty of Built Environment, University of New South Wales, NSW 2052, Australia., 2010.
  14. Kurul, H. Abanda, J. H. Tah and F. Cheung, Rethinking the Build Process for BIM Adoption, Oxford University, 2014.
  15. L. C. SLC, "Sample Size," Lincoln Univeristy, 2006.
  16. Penn State, "The Uses of BIM," 2011.
  17. Musabyimana, "Benefits of mandating BIM on infrastructure," Construction Magazine Rwanda, vol. 3, no. 11, p. 36, 2017.
  18. Howard and B. C. Bjork, Building information modeling: experts' views on standardisation and industry deployment. Advanced Engineering Informatics, 2008.
  19. Salzar, H. Mokbel, A. M. and w. Kearney, "The use of Building Information Model in construction logistics and progress tracking in the Worcester Trail Courthouse.," in Joint International Conference on Computing and Decision Making in Civil Building Engineering, Montreal, Canada., 2006.
  20. F. Hergunsel, "Benefits of Building Information Modeling for Construction Managers and BIM based Scheduling," Worcester Polytechnic Institute, 2011.
  21. Azhar and Salman, "Building Information Modeling (BIM): Benefits, Risks and Challenges," 2014.
  22. Barison and E. Santos, "An overview of BIMspecialists," in Proceedings of International Conference of Computing and Civil Engineering, Nottingham, UK, 2010.
  23. Gu and K. London, "Understanding and facilitating BIM adoption in the AEC industry," Automation in Construction, vol. 19, p. 988–999, 2010.
  24. Sebastian, "Breaking Through Business and Legal Barriers of Open Collaborative Processes based on Building Information Modelling," in Proceedings of the 18th CIB World Building Congress, Salford, UK., 2010.
  25. Nyári, "Carbon footprint of construction products: -A comparison of application of individual Environmental Product Declarations and Building Information Modeling software," Helsinki Metropolia University of Applied Sciences, Helsinki, 2015.
  26. Skanska and Statsbygg, "Greenhouse gas calculations using BIM," 2009.
  27. UK Government Cabinet Office, "BIM Strategy," 2018.
  28. Whitley Group, "FAQ- What is BIM Modeling?," 2017. [Online]. Available: http://www.whitleygroup.com/faq-06.html. [Accessed 26 March 2019].

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2.

Authors:

Enan Habiyambere, Stephen O. Diang’a, Githae Wanyona

Paper Title:

Influence of Application of Appropriate Technologies in Upgrading of Informal Settlements in Kigali

Abstract: Informal settlement in the urban areas are a growing phenomenon. That are developed gradually where a big number of world’s population live in them. The increase in number of the urban poor and rural migration looking for employments and urban services, natural population growth and lack of affordable serviced houses in the urban areas were found as the main cause of informal settlements. The low-income population has occupied unplanned and un-serviced public and private land through unauthorized and unregulated means, therefore the settlements were developed in areas where social services and infrastructures are lacking. The problem of informal settlements has been addressed through several methods according to the different informal settlement categories. Simultaneously targeting key regulatory issues to prevent the formation of new unplanned and underserviced settlements. Upgrading settlements through provision of basic social services and infrastructures is one of the intervention. This study was done on two settlements located in Nyarugenge District in the City of Kigali comprising Agatare and Tetero, their evolvement and development were identified and appropriate technologies that can be applied to upgrade them were recommended. Following the standards defined by Kigali city master plan adopted in 2013, upgrading of unplanned settlements have to increase densities and create affordable housing options for the most vulnerable to minimize relocation and displacement of poor populations, particularly of tenants. A way forward strategy was proposed, matching specific needs per settlement category. This includes improving key infrastructure to achieve positive socio-economic impacts and counter-balance socioterritorial segregation trends. This is supported by a legal framework for facilitating informal settlements upgrading, in line with the national strategy, aiming to lay the foundation for short and long-term upgrading and prevention interventions.

Keywords: Upgrading Informal Settlement, Appropriate Technology. 

References:

  1. Un-habitat, 2015. 22 – iformal settlements, new york : habitat iii issue papers.
  2. Baken, r. J., nientied, p., petternburg, m. & zaaijier, m., 1991. Neighborhood consolidation and development of the informal settlements, s.l.: s.n.
  3. Macauslan, p., 1985. Urban land and shelter for the poor. London: earthscan.
  4. Payne, g., 1984. Low-income housing in the developing world: the role of sites and services and settlement upgrading. New york: john willy & sons.
  5. Lier, v. Et al., 1994. Sustainable land use. Amsterdam: elseveir.
  6. Un-habitat, 2016. Informal settlements , s.l.: un-habitat iii.
  7. Baross, p. A. L. J., 1990. The transformation of land supply systems in third world. S.l.:s.n.
  8. Payne, g., 2002. Land, rights and innovation: improving tenure security for the urban poor. London: itdg publishing.
  9. Dale, p.f., mclaughlin & j.d., 2000. Land administration. S.l.:oxford university press.
  10. Asiama, s.o. & acquaye, e., 1986. Land policies for development for low-income groups in africa. S.l.:s.n.
  11. World bank, 2016. Informal settlements. New york: s.n.
  12. City alliance, 2002. Sustainable development..
  13. Peterson, t., 2010. Rwanda one of the fastest growing economies. The newtimes.
  14. Israel, g. D., 1992. Determining sample size, florida: universty of florida.
  15. District, n., 2018. Statistics, s.l.: s.n.

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3.

Authors:

Harouna Nshimiyimana, Abednego O. Gwaya, Titus Kivaa

Paper Title:

Influence of Project Management Practice on Performance of Public Housing Projects in Rwanda

Abstract: Project management is a kind of innovative practice that aims at achieving specified objectives through efficient use of resources. Considering the alarming number of failed construction projects around the world, the purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of project management practice on performance of public housing projects in Rwanda. The Government institution named Rwanda Housing Authority (RHA) has been mandated to manage all public housing projects, thus this study focuses on projects under this organization’s management. This study used both a descriptive cross-sectional survey research design and the correlational research design, with a target population of fifty-seven (57) employees of RHA who are directly deployed under the department in charge of construction project management with further reference made to their job profiles. Data were collected using questionnaires upon questionnaire filtering approach, and the data analysis was done using Microsoft Excel and is presented using tables, and regression equations. This study findings revealed that respondents have knowledge on project management practice and its paramount importance on projects performance.

Keywords: Project Management Practice, Public Housing Projects, Project Performance.

References:

  1. Dubem I. Ikediashi, Stephen O. Ogunlana and Abdulaziz Alotaibi, Journal of Construction in Developing Countries, 19(1), 35–52, 2014, 2014.
  2. Hughes, S., Tippett, D. and Thomas, W., "Measuring project success in the Construction Industry," Engineering Management Journal, 16(3): 31–37, 2004.
  3. Auditor General, "Report of Auditor General of State Finances," OAG, City of Kigali, 2017.
  4. National Council for Construction, Introduction to Construction Contract Management & Administration, 009 ed., Nairobi: NCC, 2012.
  5. Frederikslust, Predictability of Corporate Failure, Leiden, Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff Social Sciences Division, 1978.
  6. Office of Auditor General, "Public Project Performance," OAG, Kigali, 2017.
  7. PMO, "National Leadership Retreat Resolutions," Gabiro, 2017.
  8. RHA, "Imihigo Report," Mininfra, Kigali, 2017.
  9. Crooper, The Oxford Handbook of Inter-Organizational Relations, New York: Oxford University Press, 2008.
  10. Isimbi, "Adoption of E-Procurement and Implementation," Uwadede Isimbi, City of Kigali, 2016.
  11. Transparency International Rwanda, "Corruption Perception Index," 2017.
  12. Rwanda Public Procurement Agency, "Rwanda Public Procurement Agency," Kigali, 2014.
  13. Oluka, P.N. & Basheka, B.C, "Determinants and constraints to effective procurement," Oluka, P.N. & Basheka, B.C, Kampala, 2012.
  14. G. Rendon, "Critical Succrss Factors in Government Contract Management," Monterey, California, 2009.
  15. Lowe, "Commercial Management Theory and Practice," Chichester, 2013.
  16. Sanghera, "Fundamentals of effective program management: a process approach based on the global standard.," Ft. Lauderdale, Fl.: J. Ross Pub. Transformation Index. Kenya, 2014.
  17. Cruz and Marques, "Flexible contracts to cope with uncertainty in public–private partnerships," Elsevier, 2013.
  18. Michael Rycroft., "Designing Buildings Wiki," 2019. [Online]. Available: https://www.designingbuildings.co.uk/wiki/Variations_in_construction_contracts. [Accessed 13 April 2019].
  19. Henry Boot Construction & Alstom, "Henry Boot Construction v Alston Combined Cycles," APP.L.R., 2000.
  20. Balamuralithara & Chong, "Construction Contract Administration in Malaysia using DFD," 2011.
  21. Young, "Outsourcing in public health: a case study of contract failure and its aftermath.," Journal of Health Organization and Management, 2008.
  22. Saxena, "Enterprise contract management a practical guide to successfully implementing an ECM solution.," Ross Publications, 2008.
  23. Greve, "Contracting for Public Services.," New York, NY: Routledge., 2008.
  24. Sieke, "Supply chain contract management a performance analysis of efficient supply chain contracts.," Verl. Koln Kolner Wiss., 2008.
  25. A. Wan, Basic Concepts of Regression Analysi, Hong Kong, 2017.
  26. R. Duncan, A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knoweldge (PMBOK), Newton Square: Project Management Institute, 1996.
  27. Teicholz, Labor Productivity Declines in the Construction Industry: Causes and Remedies, AECbytes 4 . Web. 2017<aecbytes.com>., 2004.
  28. Office of Auditor General, "Rwanda National Construction Industry Policy," Kigali, 2017.
  29. Diathesopoulos, Relational contract theory and management contracts, 2010.
  30. University of Regina, Regression Analysis, 2017 ed., Regina: University of Regina, 2017.
  31. G. &. H. Cho, Introduction to Regression Analysis, Boston: WIT Press, 2012.
  32. a. Marques, "Flexible contracts to cope with uncertainty in public–private partnerships," Elsevier, 2013.
  33. Uher & Davenport, Fundamentals of building contract management, Sydney: UNSW Press, 2009.

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4.

Authors:

Ndahimana Anaclet, Gwaya Abednogo, Diang’a Stephen

Paper Title:

Small Scale Energy Systems Construction and Maintenance Management through Program Decentralization: A Case Study of the Rwanda Domestic Biogas Program

Abstract: An energy system is a system primarily designed to supply energy-services to end-users. The IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) Fifth Assessment Report defines an energy system as "all components related to the production, conversion, delivery, and use of energy". To this end, Domestic biogas constructions have a direct positive effect on rural peoples’ energy supply, environment, health and agricultural production. In fact, Construction companies construct 4, 6, 8, and 10 m3 Biogas plants that can solve cooking issues at household level. To date, 40 biogas construction companies and 21 biogas construction cooperatives have been conducting the biogas business in all the 30 administrative Districts of Rwanda. These biogas plants are operated through digestion of cattle dung, but also toilets can also be attached for sanitation purpose. Effective domestic biogas construction and maintenance management needs a program that oversees its deployment in rural areas. In these programs, multiple actors at different levels cooperate on the basis of proper institutional arrangements to provide access to sustainable energy for rural households raising livestock. The government implements the domestic biogas program through REG (Rwanda Energy Group), which provides subsidies for biogas constructions. From 2006 to 2013, the biogas was centralized and managed essentially from REG, Kigali office. Prior to the decentralization, the rural people were still underserved and some of the installed biogas digesters constructed were non-operational. However, since beginning of 2014, the biogas program decentralization has been initiated. To this regard, the 30 administrative Districts of Rwanda started taking the lead in its implementation. In addition, in a drive to bring proximity services to the beneficiaries District biogas youth-led cooperatives were established, with youth masons from all the 416 administrative sectors of Rwanda, this in a drive to complement existing biogas companies or bring biogas construction and maintenance services in some District with no private companies operating in this specific sector. Therefore, this research study will aim at determining if the biogas program decentralization from central level to Districts has contributed to more biogas constructions, thus increased access to energy by rural people. But also, if decentralization contributed to better maintenance of existing plants through improved services to beneficiaries. The target population will be the Rwanda Energy Group, District and biogas private company’s staff who will be interviewed. In addition, a survey will be conducted for rural households already owning a biogas plant. At the end, the study should be able to determine whether there decentralization of the biogas program has led to closing gaps compared to the previous centralized system and if the decentralization has led to an increased number of domestic biogas constructions and better maintenance of existing biogas constructions. The study would be able to provide recommendations that would be applied in order to further improve the domestic biogas program, but also come out with a model that could be replicated for other Small Scale Energy systems.

Keywords: Energy systems, Program, Decentralization, Effective, Construction, Maintenance services

References:

  1. MININFRA (2016, June).Rwanda Rural Electrification Strategy. Rwanda
  2. MININFRA (2013).Rwanda Energy Sector Strategic Plan (2013-2018). Rwanda
  3. NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STATISTICS (2012).Fourth Population and Housing Census. Rwanda
  4. DEKELVER G., NDAHIMANA A.& RUZIGANA S.(2006, September).Implementation Plan National Program on Domestic Biogas in Rwanda. Kigali, Rwanda
  5. REPUBLIC OF RWANDA (2013).District IMIHIGO Evaluation Report 2012-2013.Rwanda
  6. WORLD ENERGY OUTLOOK(WEO 2016).Biomass database
  7. WORLD ENERGY OUTLOOK(WEO 2016).Electricity Access database
  8. AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT BANK(2013).Rwanda Energy Sector Review and Action Plan
  9. MINISTRY OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT (2012). Rwanda Decentralization Policy. Rwanda
  10. MINISTRY OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT (2013).Governance and decentralization sector strategic plan 2013/14-2017/18. Rwanda
  11. JAN LAM ,FELIX TER HEEGDE(2010).Reader for the compact course domestic biogas technology and mass dissemination
  12. UNDP (2014). Decentralized Governance for Development: A Combined Practice Note on Decentralization, Local Governance and Urban/Rural Development
  13. RWANDA INSTITUTE OF STATISTICS(2012).Integrated Household Living Conditions Survey (EICV 3).Rwanda
  14. http://www.fao.org/docrep/005/y2006e/y2006e05.htm#fn17
  15. Farrah Ahamad, Simon Boehler, Zahra Khan,Ruvinda Pilapitiya(2014).The politics of Decentralized Service Provision-A conceptual Framework. Washington, USA.
  16. YAMANE T(1967).Statistics: An introduction Analysis. NewYork
  17. FRANCOIS MARCHAL (2013). Sustainable Energy Systems :A Process System Engineering Perspectives. Suisse
  18. JULIA TERRAPON, CARMEN DIENST, JULIAN KONIG, WILLINGTON ORTIZ (2014).How effective are small-scale energy interventions in developing countries? Results from a post-evaluation on project-level. Germany

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5.

Authors:

Fulgence Gakuba, Titus Kivaa, Githae Wanyona

Paper Title:

Determinants of Closure of Local Construction Companies in Rwanda

Abstract: The objectives of Construction Companies are to be successful in their business by surviving in competitive Business Environment. However, the construction industry has unique characteristics making it different from others development sectors. The sector is fragmented, very sensitive to many determinants which results to high rate of Business Closure. Business failure, Collapse and Bankruptcy are common terms defines the status of the company closure. The ease in Entering the Construction market with limited financing resources results to many companies competing on limited market and exposing many to Business closure, Rwanda is no exception. The objectives of the research study aimed at identifying the determinants of business closure of Local construction companies in Rwanda and Investigating their severity. The severity was ranked in Likert scale and was assessed in respect to the view points of the contractors in both construction sectors and consultants’ firms. And the study also looked at salvage measures to be taken in avoidance of failures. Benching marking the research, the literature review provided a framework in understanding the finding resulting to closure of the companies and some suitable determinants was grouped based on their relevancy in a group of sectors. Basing on those determinants, research instruments were developed and used in Data Collections within several firm’s managers and other important stakeholders like Engineers and architectures. Subsequently, data was analyzed using descriptive method and identify their Severity index, rank correlations analysis and one sample test was applied to proof the relevance of the determinants identified. The Descriptive statistics and test of hypotheses confirmed the variables which were found in the literature. The adverse impact of closure of the company has great consequence on the Government GDP since the sector employee a good number of workers as it mostly affects individual income. The study was important for both Government Institutions, NGO’s, Universities, Research Institutions and other stakeholders. The study results revealed that contract administration, finances, design variation and technology significantly influence closure of construction projects in Rwanda. Based on the study findings, the creation of effective and efficient construction management structures was necessary. The study suggests that when sourcing for a contractor to undertake a project, it is of paramount importance to vet them and confirm that they have capacity to undertake the project in question. The contractor should also show proof of competent and well-educated staff who have handled such projects to completion in the past. The contractor should also show proof of appropriate equipment or ability to rent.

Keywords: Company closure, salvage, local contractors, Business Environment.

References:

  1. Lee, A.; Cooper, R.; Aouad, G. (2001). A methodology for designing performance measures for the UK construction industry. Salford University.
  2. Samson, M.; Lema, N. M. (2005). Development of construction contractor’s performance measurement framework. Department of Construction Technology and Management, University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
  3. Navon, R. 2005. Automated project performance control of construction projects, Automation in Construction 14: 467-476.
  4. (2006). Projects completion reports, UNRWA, Gaza.
  5. (2007). Projects completion reports, UNRWA, Gaza.
  6. Assaf, S., Hassanain, M. A. & Al-Zahrani, S., (2015). Causes of Contractors’ Failure in Industrial Projects in Saudi Arabia. Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology 9(3): 158-164.
  7. Chai, S.C., Yusof A.M. (2013) Reclassifying Housing delivery Delay Classification. International Journal of Business Management, Vol. 8, No. 22, pp. 107-117.
  8. Ahadzie, D. (2011). A Study of the Factors Affecting the Performance of Contractors Working on KMA Projects, Journal of Local Government Studies, Vol. 3 (1), pp. 50-65
  9. Chilipunde, R. (2011). Assessment of emerging contractors in Malawi. (Unpublished BSc honors treatise). Port Elizabeth: Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University.
  10. Lim, C.S. and Mohamad, M.Z. (1999) Criteria of Project Success: An Exploratory Reexamination. International Journal of Project Management, 17: pp. 243-248
  11. Mbachu, J.; Nkando, R. (2007). Factors constraining successful building project implementation in South Africa, Construction Management and Economics 25(1): 39–54
  12. Gollenbeck, L. (2009). Planning of Construction Projects: A Managerial Approach. Siegen: Ph,D Thesis Universitat Siegen.
  13. Ramanathan, C., Narayanan S., Idrus, A.B. (2012) Construction delays causing risks on time and Cost-a critical review, Australasian Journal of Construction Economics and Building, 12(1), pp. 37-57
  14. Adindu, C. C. (2012). Developing Templates for Project Costing in Nigeria: Basic Considerations. 1st National Project Cost Reduction Summit. Abuja: QSRBN
  15. Freeman, H. M. (2011). A Review of the Performance of Botswana Citizen Building Contractors. Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University: South Africa: MSc Thesis
  16. Oglesby, C.H., Parker, H. W. & Howell, G. A. (2009) Productivity Improvement in Construction. MacGraw-Hill, New York.
  17. Hamilton, D. (2006). Contract Staff Management Systems in the Construction Industry in Nigeria. Pakistan Economic and Social Review, XLIV (1): 1-18.
  18. Ogwueleka, A. (2011). The Critical Success Facators Influencing Project Performance in Nigeria. International Journal of Management Science and Engineering Management, 6 (5): 343-349.
  19. Zulu, S.; Chileshe, N. (2008). The impact of service quality on project performance: a casestudy of building maintenance services in Zambia, in Proc. of the 3rd Built Environment Conference, Association of Schools of Construction of Southern Africa, Cape Town, South Africa.
  20. Mugenda, O.M., & Mugenda, A.G. (2013). Research methods. Nairobi: McMillan Publishers.

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6.

Authors:

Muhirwa Solange Marie, Abedenego O. Gwaya, Titus Kivaa

Paper Title:

A Management Structure to Reduce Delays in Road Construction Projects of Kigali

Abstract: Failing to complete road projects on time upsets both the Government and the users of those roads who expect to benefit from the completed roads. The construction delay is disagreeable to both the Government and contractors, as it is expensive for both parties and has the potential to generate disputes. This study analyses the main delay causes encountered by the road construction industry of Kigali, and it recommends the most operational management structure with high prospective to minimize delays in road construction industry of Kigali. The approach used was initially to analyze critically pertinent available policy documents, published reports, studies, and applicable managing techniques applied in several cities. Then, with the help of specialists and professionals from the road construction industry in Kigali, a closed loop survey was constructed and used to collect qualitative data. Then, the individual responses were analyzed towards the delay causes in road construction projects, and the link between delay causes and the effects of delay were critically evaluated. The finance competence factors group and the shortcomings in feasibility studies were established to be the major origin of delays in road construction projects in Kigali. Some operative methods were proposed to moderate delays. At the end, strategies and a management structure were recommended to moderate delays in road construction of Kigali, this will avoid turning lucrative projects into loss-making projects. 

Keywords: Road Construction, Delays, Delay causes, Effects, Kigali

References:

  1. Agaba, E. (2009).
  2. Poor Planning Delaying Government Projects (Business News Pullout), The New Vision, Thursday 16 2 2009, Vol. 24, pp 6;
  3. Alghbari, W., Kadir, M., Salim, A. and Ernawati (2007)
  4. ‘The significant factors causing delay of building construction projects in Malaysia’, Journal of Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, 14 (2), 192-206;
  5. Al-Najjar, J. (2008)
  6. Factors influencing time and cost overruns on construction projects in the Gaza Strip, Islamic University, Gaza;
  7. El-Razek, M.E.A. Bassoioni, H.A & Mobarak, A.M. (2008).
  8. Causes of Delay in building Construction Projects in Egypt, Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, Vol 134, Issue 11, p 831;
  9. Goodrum, P M, Wan, Y & Fenouil, P C 2009.
  10. A decision making system for accelerating roadway construction. Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, 16(2): 116–134;
  11. Information Policy Team, t.N.A.:
  12. The project control framework Handbook. Highways Agency publications, Kew, London, Code PR01/13 (2013)
  13. Kamanga, M J & STEYN, W (2013)
  14. ‘Causes of delay in road construction projects in Malawi’, Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering;
  15. Mansfield, N. R., Ugwu, O. O. and Doran, T. (1994)
  16. Causes of delay and cost overruns in Nigerian construction Projects. International Journal of Project management 12 (4) 254 – 260;
  17. Marzouk, M.M.; El-Rasas, T.I. (2014)
  18. Analyzing delay causes in Egyptian construction projects. J. Adv. Res. 5(1), 49–55;
  19. Sambasivan,M. & Soon, Y.W. (2007).
  20. Causes and Effects of Delays in Malaysian Construction Industry, International Journal of Project management, Vol. 25, Issue 5, pp 517-526;
  21. Shehu, Z. and Akintoye, A. (2009).
  22. The Critical success factors for effective programme management: a pragmatic approach. The Built & Human Environment Review 2: 1-24.
  23. Todryk L (1990)
  24. The project manager as a team builder: creating an effective team Project Management Journal;
  25. PMBOK Guide (2004)
  26. Project Management Body of Knowledge (3rd ed.), Project Management Institute, USA;

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7.

Authors:

Philbert Mbanza, Abedenego O. Gwaya, Titus Kivaa

Paper Title:

Developing a Framework for Creating Sustainable Affordable Housing Schemes in Kigali City

Abstract: Housing, literally is defined as buildings or other shelters in which people live, a place to live, a dwelling and to nations a critical component in social and economic system. Housing represents one of the most basic human needs. To most groups housing means shelter but to others it means more as it serves as one of the best indicators of person’s standard of living and his or her place in the society [1]. It is a priority for the attainment of living standard and it is important to both rural and urban areas. These attributes make demand for housing to know no bound as population growth and urbanization are increasing very rapidly and the gap between housing need and supply becomes wider. This housing deficit has continued to accumulate over the years as a result of poor housing policy implementation by successive governments in Rwanda. Researchers in urban housing and community development face significant challenges in evaluating the success of efforts to improve urban neighborhoods and identifying underlying theories that might predict the success of future initiatives. Practitioners in this field confront political considerations, restrictive administrative guidelines and limited funding. It is important to mention that one of the main problems in African cities is that households invest in housing prior to the government’s development of adequate infrastructure. This is the genesis of informal settlements and, as a result, many African cities are plagued with slums –a housing stock that does not have access to the kinds of basic infrastructure needed for cities to be able to serve as platforms for economic growth. Instead of cities serving as centers of agglomeration economies that they have provided around the world and throughout history, they instead become centers of diseconomies which impede rather than enhance growth prospects [2]. Rwanda has the opportunity to change the order of these investments with potentially enormous gains. If the government invests wisely it can avoid this looming problem and keep Kigali one of the most livable cities on the continent. However, this effort requires that the government take some “bets” on infrastructure investments prior to households overwhelming existing infrastructure. The question is, “Where to put the infrastructure, and how much to put down. This research highlights some of the framework and financing tools that can be employed to reduce the challenges in housing finance and cost of housing.

Keywords: Framework for affordable housing, Housing Finance, Housing Schemes, Sustainable Housing.

References:

  1. Nubi, " Affordable Housing Delivery in Nigeria.," The South African Foundation International, 2008.
  2. Robert, "Affordable Housing in Rwanda: Opportunities, Options, and Challenges: Some Perspectives from the International Experience," Kigali, 2014.
  3. MININFRA, "National Urban Housing Policy for Rwanda," Governement of Rwanda, Kigali, 2008.
  4. Raji, " Public and private developers as agents in Urban Housing delivery in sub-Saharan Africa..," Lagos state, .2008.
  5. Todd, "Affordable-Accessible Housing in a Dynamic City," Why and How to increase Affordable Housing in Accessible Neighborhoods, p. 3, 24 August 2015.

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8.

Authors:

Kaziviya Dany Vedaste, Abedenego O. Gwaya, Titus Kivaa

Paper Title:

The Commercial Real Estate Analysis in Master Plan Implementation for the City of Kigali

Abstract: Kigali, the capital of Rwanda with currently more than 1.3 Million inhabitants is among the most active and advancing Cities of Africa which aims at developing as a competitive, clean, attractive, safe and clean core in the East African region. Projections indicate that the Kigali’s population will double in ten years. Kigali, as most cities in the modern world, is attracting ever more people in search of job opportunities, self-improvement and a better future. The building sector is among others emerging in Kigali, after the city completed its detailed master plan in 2013. This study specifically focuses on the analysis of the existing retail commercial and office space in period from 2013-2018 in line of implementing the City of Kigali master. The objectives of this study were; (1) to assess the existing commercial retail space in the City of Kigali, (2) to identify challenges faced by developers and renters in commercial real estate industry and (3) to assess current interventions by City of Kigali and government in commercial real. Data were collected using questionnaires, observations and documentation analysis. They were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed basing on researcher’s objectives. Primary and secondary data were collected for the analysis. Sampling practices were used to select the respondents from the study population. The research design was drowned; primary and secondary data were gathered for this research. After carrying out this research, it was revealed that commercial real estate property investments in Kigali originate from short term bank loans with high interest rates and the increased number of retail commercial and office spaces in the last five years in Kigali has not brought rental prices down as expected. The high cost of rent for retail commercial and office space and the limited number of quality space have led many corporate organizations, and individual businesses in Kigali to converting some residential houses into offices at negotiable prices. The research recommends the GoR and CoK, to improve in provision of the adequate infrastructure and facilities, streamlining laws and regulations related to construction, urban planning and doing business in favor of building developers, the key role players in the implementation of the KCMP. On reduction of big amount invested in construction which leads to the high rent rates, this research recommends the use of local construction materials, long term loans with low interest rates and establishment of effective strategies to ensure availability of sufficient land for commercial building development. Though, the research highly recommends other researchers who will get interested in this area of study to focus on two key things (1) An analysis to determine the most effective strategies to ensure availability of sufficient land for commercial building development in the City of Kigali; (2) the impacts of adoption of local construction materials in Building industry in Rwanda.

Keywords: Building, Challenges, Commercial Real Estate, Master Plan

References:

  1. Anna-Liisa Lindholm and Kari I. Leväinen. (2006). A framework for identifying and measuring value added by corporate real estate. Journal of Corporate Real Estate, 8(1), 38-46.
  2. City of Kigali. (2011). Population of the City of Kigali Retrieved 30 January 2019, from http://www.kigalicity.gov.rw/spip.php?article9. Kigali.
  3. City of Kigali. (2013). Kigali City Master Plan Retrieved 12 June 2018, 2014. Kigali: http://www.masterplan2013.kigalicity.gov.rw/Downloads/.
  4. Geltner and Miller. (2007). Commercial Real Estate Analysis And Investments. USA. John M. Clapp, Stephen D. Messner. (2008). Real Estate Market Analysis: Methods and Applications. University of Connecticut. Zaiton Ali, Stanley McGreal, Alastair Adair, James Webb. (2008). Corporate Real Estate Strategy: A Conceptual Overview. Journal of Real Estate Literature, 1-22.
  5. Abdul Rashid Abdul Aziz, Ho Shiew Yi and Mastura Jaafar, Competitive resources of private housing developers: the Malaysian perspective, Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology, 4, 1, (71), (2006).
  6. AIREA, The Appraisal of Real Estate, 1st ed, Chicago API (NSW) (2013),
  7. API, NSW Babcock, Australian Property Directions Survey, May, F (1932),
  8. Audrey, G.(1987). Significant Influence. Canada: Canadian University Press
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  10. BALINDA R., 2010, Initiation to scientific research, ULK Christensen, H.(1991). Data collection and analysis. U.S.A.University of Chicago Press.
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  13. City of Kigali. (2011b). Colonial History of Kigali Retrieved 15 August 2018, 2015, from http://www.kigalicity.gov.rw/spip.php?article4
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  15. City of Kigali. (2013) Kigali City Master Plan Retrieved 12 June 2018, 2014, from http://www.masterplan2013.kigalicity.gov.rw/Downloads/
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9.

Authors:

Patrick Arinawe, Abedenego O. Gwaya, Stephen O. Diang’a

Paper Title:

Adoption of Pre-Fabricated Building Technology to Address Housing in Kigali City

Abstract: The challenge of housing delivery is of great concern in many countries of the world. This problem is more predominant in developing countries and Rwanda is not an exception. Kigali City like most cities in developing countries is faced with housing shortage mainly caused by the growing urban population, high costs of construction and limited supply of dwelling units to meet the current demand. This study set out to examine if the adoption of prefabricated building technology can improve the delivery of affordable housing in Kigali City. Prefabs have in the past been advocated sustainable approach of reducing construction cost leading to affordable housing. The targeted study population consisted of Registered and practicing professionals( Engineers, Architects and Urban Planners , Manufacturers of prefabricated building materials( Strawtec and Afri-precast), Real estate developers, Staff at Rwanda Housing Authority , Ministry of Infrastructure , City of Kigali involved in housing supply and regulation and Home owners. The study objectives were to: assess the current interventions by government and private sector to increase supply housing in Kigali. Compare the cost effectiveness of using conventional and prefabricated building materials on housing projects in Kigali; Examine the perception of stakeholders towards the use and adoption of prefabricated building materials and finally suggest and recommend a framework for adopting prefabricated building materials on housing projects in Kigali City. The research design was cross - sectional study and it relied on both quantitative and qualitative. Both primary and secondary data were collected from developers, consultants and contractors through checklists, questionnaires, interviews and visual observations. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze the data. They described functional performance, lessons learned, adoption rate, social and economic impacts of prefabs. The study revealed that the costs of the raw materials as high and hence making the adoption rate of the prefabricated building materials in Kigali City low. Additionally, the advantages of prefabs included savings on speed of construction, waste reduction, labor reduction, efficiency and quality production. These impacts are however not aggressively propagated or articulated to the general public. This lack of effective dissemination has led to constrained knowledge on the social and economic benefits of prefabs curtailing satisfactory solutions to affordable housing. Thus, the researcher recommends that the Sensitizing the public through open forums, printed pamphlets, show houses, physical demonstrations of construction speeds, active public participation and other promotion methods; of the many advantages of prefabs. These findings of the study should be applied in future projects as a way to promote adoption of the prefabricated building technology.

Keywords: Adoption, Prefabricated, Affordable housing, alternative building technology.

References:

  1. The Swedish Trade & Invest Council, "Opportunities in the construction industry in Rwanda," 2017.
  2. Davis, Bagozzi & Warshaw . (1989). The Technology Acceptance Model, version 1. (Davis, Bagozzi & Warshaw 1989).
  3. Barker, K. (2003 & 2004). eview of Housing Supply. Delivering Stability; Securing our Future.
  4. Bryman, A., & Bell, E. (2007). Business Research Methods (2 ed.). Oxford University Press.
  5. CHANDRA, L. N. (2015). BIM use in Advanced Prefabircated Modular Construction. Fulton Schools of Engineering, Arizona State University,.
  6. Consortium, P. (June, 2012). Housing Market Demand, Hosuing Finace and Housing Preferances for The City of Kigali. Kigali: European Union .
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  9. Dominic Adams, Anoop Sattineni, and Jacqueline Thompson. (2014). Using Prefabricated Building Components to Obtain LEED. 50th ASC Annual International Conference Proceedings. Fernández, C. C. (2014). Developing a framework for prefabrication.
  10. Gibb, A. G. (1999). Off-site fabrication-pre-assembly, prefabrication and modularisation.
  11. Haas, C. T. (2000). Prefabrication and Preassembly. Trends and Effects.
  12. Hashemi, A. (2013). Review of the UK Housing History in Relation to System.
  13. Hergunsel, M. F. (2011). Benefits of Building Information Modeling for Construction Managers and BIM based Scheduling. WORCESTER POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE.
  14. Hong Xue. (2017). Factors Affecting the Capital Cost of the Capital cost of Prefablication - A case study of China. 22.
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  17. Kushwaha, V. (2016). Contribution Of Building Information Modeling (BIM) To Solve Problems In Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) Industry and Addressing Barriers to Implementation of BIM. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET), 3(1), 100.
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10.

Authors:

Abraham Gahenda, Abedenego O. Gwaya, Stephen Onyango Diang’a

Paper Title:

Adoption of Value Management in Construction Projects in Rwanda

Abstract: Value management has been practiced for long time as of now. However, in Rwanda, most constructors and experts are just ambiguously acquainted with this subject and don't understand the advantages of value management and that it very well can be an esteem adding tool to the client. Rwanda, as a developing country, is investing a lot in construction infrastructures and its construction industry is growing on time basis. Value management, as one of the tools contributing to the performance of construction projects, is still unknown to some of people involved in construction projects and that concept will still be unknown and not used in construction as long as there will still be the gap in researches about it in Rwanda. The aim of this exploration was to set up the appropriation of value management in construction project in Rwanda, to identify the construction project performance which would be accomplished through the practice of value management, investigate the present condition of the act of value management in construction industry in Rwanda, the advantages of utilizing it at various stages and its impact to the improvement of the performance of construction projects. This study adopted questionnaires which were submitted to different people involved in construction in a sample randomly selected from a total of 182 construction project managers, consultants, developers and implementers. The Ministry in charge of construction in Rwanda would benefit from implementing the process for adoption discussed in this study. This study therefore recommended different approaches to adopt value management in construction project in Rwanda among them, Developing VM module and teaching Value Management in construction high schools, developing and facilitating CPDs and trainings on Value Management in construction boards institute and council, Practicing Value Management on different construction project were the 3 keys adoption methods identified by this study.

Keywords: Value Management Adoption, Construction Projects.

References:

  1. O.G, Sylvester.M.M, Walter.O.O (2014). Development of a Benchmarking Model for Construction Projects in Kenya
  2. O.A. 2005. Value Management Foundation Equivalent Course. University of Leeds.UK.
  3. Chan, A. (2001). Framework for Measuring Success of Construction Projects, Report 2001- 003-C-01.
  4. Chan, A. P. C., & Chan, A. P. L. (2004). Key performance indicators for measuring construction success . Benchmarking: An international journal, 11(2), 203-221.
  5. Chandran, E. (2004). Research methods: A quantitative approach. Nairobi: Daystar University.
  6. Choge, K. J., & Muturi, W. M. (2014). Factors affecting adherence to cost estimates: A survey of construction projects of Kenya National Highways Authority. International Journal of Social Sciences and Entrepreneurship, 1, 689-705.
  7. Gwaya, A. O., Masu, S. M., & Wanyona, G. (2014). Development of Appropriate project Managenemt Factors for the Construction Industry in Kenya. International Journal of Soft Computing and Engineering (IJSCE) 4(1)
  8. Israel, G. D. (1992). Determining Sample Size. University of Florida, IFAS Extension, PE0D6(April 2009), 1–5. http://doi.org/10.4039/Ent85108-3
  9. Lawrence Mwangi Gitau, 2015, The effects of risk management at project planning phase on performance of construction projects in Rwanda, Nairobi, Kenya.
  10. Male, S.P.and Kelly, J.R. (1998), A study of Value Management and Quantity Surveying Practice, London: Surveyors Publications, RICS.
  11. Ministry of Finance and Economic planning. (2014). Budget Framework paper 2014/2015- 2016/2017. Retrieved from http://www.minecofin.gov.rw
  12. Mugenda, O. M. & Mungenda, A. G. (2003), Research Method Quantitative &Qualitative Approaches: Nairobi Kenya: acts Press
  13. Norton, B. R. and McElligott, W.C. (1995), Value Management in Construction - a practical guide, Macmillan Press, London.
  14. Palmer, A. (1992) An investigative study of value engineering in the united states of america and its relationship to UK cost control procedures, Unpublished PhD thesis, Loughborough University of Technology
  15. Smith, N. J. (2006). Managing risk in construction projects (2nd ed.). London: Blackwell Publishing.

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11.

Authors:

Nsabimana Placide, Abednego O. Gwaya, Githae Wanyona

Paper Title:

Influence of Human Resource Management Practices on Employees' Performance in Construction Organizations in Rwanda

Abstract: Business environment has changed a lot. This global change is caused by factors like globalization, changing customer and investor desires, ever-increasing product-market competition. Rwanda is not an exception in this regard, and all business sectors are affected, including construction industry. Therefore, Construction firms need a continuous improvement of their performance to successfully compete in this environment, in terms of stakeholders’ satisfaction. Employees, constituting the most important organizational resource, need to be managed with a special focus, as organizational sustainability is worldwide recognized to be dependent on their performance, because many other sources of competitive success are less powerful than they used to. Today, in most of construction organizations operating in Rwanda, productivity of workers is far below expectation. Many construction firms incur a lot of loss and many projects fail because of poor HRM, despite the deployment of enough of other resources. This study was conducted to asses the influence of HR management practices on employees’ performance in construction organizations in Rwanda and to develop a HRM model to improve on HRM systems. The study used qualitative analysis with descriptive survey design and showed that, human resource management practices, have a significant influence on employees’ performance in construction organizations in Rwanda, where by the failure of some firms to meet their goals is partly due to poor application of HRM practices, leading to poor employees’ performance. The author developed an HRM framework “3Winged HRM Model” to contribute in improving organizational HRM functions and he recommended further studies to cover international construction organizations to bridge the gap of this study which focused on local construction firms in Rwanda.

Keywords: Human resource, Human Resource Practices, Motivation, Employees’ Performance, Organizational Goals, Construction Organizations, Organizational Sustainability.
Abbreviations:
HR: Human Resource, HRM: Human Resource Management

References:

  1. Anderson cooper (2006). Dispatches from the Edge; Amenoir of war disaster, and survival. McGraw Hill Publishing Company UK.
  2. Dessler, G. (2007) Human Resource Management New Delhi: Prentice Hall of India Private
  3. Fey, Carl F. and Ingmar Bjorkman, (2001), “The Effect of Human Resource Management Practices on MNC Subsidiary Performance in Russia” Journal of International Business Studies, Vol. 32. No.1
  4. Havel, G.H and Tzadrir, S.S (1999), “The Effect of Human resource management Practices on the perceptions of organizational and market performance of the firm: Human Resource Management Vol. 38, pp 185- 200.
  5. Huselid, Mark A., (1995), “The Impact of Human Resource Management Practices on Turnover Productivity, and Corporate Financial Performance,” Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 38. No. 3.
  6. e.m (1981) Intrinsic Motivation with Performance Contigen Reward, the journal of Psychology 108 No. 1
  7. Park, H.J., Mitsuhashi. H., Fey, C.F., and Bjorkman, I. (2003), The effect of Human Resource Management Practices on Japanese MNC subsidiary performance: A Practical Mediating Model, International Journal of Human Resource Management, Vol.14, No.8
  8. Schuler, R.S. and Jackson, S.E. (1987). “Linking Competitive Strategies with human Resource Management Practices” Academy of Management Executive, Vol. 1, No. 3

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12.

Authors:

Kalamagye John, Abednego O. Gwaya, Githae Wanyona

Paper Title:

Causes of Contractors’ Failure in the Construction Industry in Rwanda

Abstract: In Rwanda the construction sector plays a major role in the country’s economic development through its contribution to gross domestic product (GDP), gross domestic capital formation (GDCF), creation of employment and production of capital facilities and assets required for production in other sectors. Despite its importance, construction industry faces challenges which cause failure by contractors during the execution of contracts and seek to develop a strategy to mitigate contractors’ failure in construction industry in Rwanda. The study aims at identifying and analyzing the challenges which cause failure experienced by contractors during the execution of construction contracts and seeks to develop a strategy to mitigate constructors’ failure in the constructor industry in Rwanda. Even if the construction industry in Rwanda is growing at an increasing rate due to the political environment that promotes doing business and a booming private sector driven economy; most construction contractor’s companies remain at same level of survival and growth in business for quite a long period of time due to a number of hindering factors. The study focused on the challenges which cause failure encountered by construction contractors during implementation of contracts in Rwanda; the perceptions of contractors, consultants and clients regarding the challenges which cause failure of construction contractors during the execution of contracts in Rwanda; and the strategies to mitigate contractors’ failure in construction industry in Rwanda. In the purpose of the study, the online questionnaire survey of 80 construction contractors, 58 consultancy firms and 32 clients was conducted. The researcher surveyed 30 causes that have been categorized into managerial, financial, expansion and external groups which lead to failure of construction contractors from literature and respondents.

Keywords: Client, Consultancy, contracts, and contractors’ failure.  

References:

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  5. Alienate, H. M., Makala, J. A., Hansson, B. (2007). Factors affecting the productivity of building craftsmen: Case studies of Uganda. Journal of Civil Engineering and Manage- mint, 3 (13), 169-176.
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  7. Aridity, D., Koala, A., Kale, S. (2000). Business failures in the construction industry. Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, 120-132.
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  9. Assar, S. A., Al-Hajji, S. (2006). Causes of delay in large construction projects. International Journal of Project Management, 4 (24), 349357.
  10. Asteway, (2008). Study on the effects of unpredictable price fluctuation on the capacity of construction contractors. Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa.
  11. Ayyub, , Mc Coen, R. (2000). Probability, Statistics and Reliability for Engineers, States- tics and Scientists. USA: Chapman and Hall.
  12. Ayudhy (2011). Evaluation of Common Delay Causes.  Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, 5 (11).
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  14. Banks, J. (1900). Contempory challenges in project management. New York. Bernard. (1944). Research hypothesis.
  15. Bluman, (2011). Elementary Statistics: A Step by Step Approach.  McGraw-Hill
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  22. Fellows, , Liu, A. (1997). Research methods for construction. Blackwell Science.
  23. Florence, , Abuja, N. J. (2013). Causes of Financial Distress: A Survey of Firms Funded by Industrial and Commercial Development Corporation in Kenya. Institute of Inter- disciplinary Business Research, 4 (12).
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  26. Hamzah, (1994). A perspective of material management practices in fast developing economy: The case of Malaysia. Construction economics and Management, 413 -422.
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13.

Authors:

Richa Ankush Pathe, Anupama Sharma

Paper Title:

Comparative Analysis of International and Local Ranking Organisation Themes: an Approach to Identify the need of Physical Development in India

Abstract: Urbanization is simultaneously a boon and a threat, as it reflects economic development on one hand and on the other hand affects urban environment adversely. Urban planning and its development issues is and would be a well- established concern cited at various international and national agendas. Urbanization has led to urban development issues like gap in demand and supply of physical services, lack of green spaces, unhygienic streets etc, hence contributing to the degradation of quality of living in cities. Though urban cities aim to provide healthy environment to its population. Urban development issues like inadequate physical services, fall in economic prosperity and rise in social discontent among the urban population, making the population suffer. The paper intends to undergo comparative analysis of various measurement tools that have been developed to rank cities in accordance to the physical amenities and facilities available to its resident, at international and local levels, for identifying the need to focus on physical development in India.

Keywords: Index, Indices, Infrastructure, Physical Development, Urbanization

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